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S1: The first normal heart sound heard.
S2: The second normal heart sound heard.
S3: Abnormal third heart sound (gallop)
S4: Abnormal fourth heart sound.
SAC: Another word for "pouch".
SACCHARIN: Sweetening substance often used in place of sugar. Large amounts were shown to cause bladder cancer in rats during the 1970's. The FDA almost banned it but then allowed its use if manufacturers put warning labels on it.
SACCHARUM: Another word for "sugar".
SACRAL: Pertaining to the sacrum.
SACR / (O): A combining word-form that means "sacrum".
SACRODYNIA: Pain in the area of the sacrum.
SACROILIAC: Referring to the part of the skeleton that includes the sacrum and ilium bones of the pelvis.
SACROILIAC JOINT: Attaches the lowest part of the spine to one of the pelvis bones (ilium).
SACROILIITIS: Inflammation of the sacroiliac.
SACRUM: Triangular bone just below the lumbar vertebrae. It is the lowermost part of the spine.
SADDLE ANESTHESIA: Also called ... "saddle block anesthesia". A type of spinal anesthesia occurring in the buttocks, perineum and inner areas of the thighs.
SADDLE BLOCK ANESTHESIA: Also called ... "saddle anesthesia". A type of spinal anesthesia occurring in the buttocks, perineum and inner areas of the thighs.
SADISM: Sexual gratification from causing pain to another.
SAGITTAL: 1. In an anteroposterior direction. 2. Resembling an arrow.
SAGO LIVER: A patient having amyloid degeneration in which the acini resemble boiled sago grains.
SAL: Another word for "salt".
SAIL SIGN: For the elbow.
SALICYLATE: A salt, ester of salicylic acid. Such compounds have analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties ... main ingredient of aspirin.
SALINE: Another word for "salt".
SALINE SOLUTION: 1. Another word for "salt water". 2. A salt and water solution used to substitute for a temporary loss of blood.
SALIVA: The digestive fluid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands.
SALIVANT: Something that causes the salivary glands to excrete saliva.
SALIVARY GLANDS: Six glands (3 pairs) which produce saliva in the mouth ... submandibular (located on the floor of the mouth), sublingual (located beneath the tongue ... on the floor of the mouth) and parotid (located in the cheeks).
SALLOW: Sickly yellowish color ... usually in reference to the skin.
SALMONELLA: Bacteria that cause food poisoning ... it causes abdominal pain and diarrhea.
SALPING / O: A combining word-form that means "fallopian tubes" (uterine).
SALPINGECTOMY: To surgically remove a fallopian tube.
SALPINGITIS: Inflamed uterine (fallopian) tube .
SALPINGO-OOPHORECTOMY: An excision of an ovary and a fallopian tube.
SALPINX: pl salpinges ... fallopian tube(s).
SALUBRIOUS: Something that promotes health.
SALUTARY: Something that promotes health.
SALVE: An ointment that soothes and heals.
SAMTER'S TRIAD: A syndrome that includes an intolerance of aspirin, asthma and nasal polyps.
SANDBAG: Sometimes used in surgery to fixate (immobilize) a body part.
SANGER'S OPERATION: Cesarean section.
SANGUINE: Another word for "bloody".
SANGUINEOUS: Relating to blood.
SAO2: Properly spelled ... "SaO2". Abbreviation for ... "arterial oxygen saturation".
SAPHENA: One of two large leg veins.
SAPHENOUS: Referring to the saphenous vein.
SAPONACEOUS: Soapy ... appearing as soap.
SAPONIFICATION: Conversion of fats into soaps.
SAPREMIA: Another word for "blood poisoning".
SEROTONIN: A neurotransmitter critical to mood changes. A shortage of serotonin can lead to feelings of depression and low self-worth.
SARCOCELE: Testicle tumor.
SARCOID: Obsolete term for a tumor that resembles a sarcoma.
SARCOIDOSIS: A disease of unknown cause that usually involves the lungs and results in fibrosis. Can also involve other organs. Symptoms include breathlessness and cough. Often people with this disease do not develop symptoms and require no treatment. However, others may require hospitalization. Prednisone is often prescribed (year 2000).
SARCOMA: A malignant neoplasm that develops on connective tissue (bone, muscle, fat, lymphatic tissue).
SARCOPTES SCABIEI: A mite that causes intense rash and itching ... it lays eggs in a burrow in the skin.
SART: Abbreviation for ... "standard acid reflux test".
SARTORIUS: One of the muscles of the thigh.
SATIETY CENTER: An area of the brain in the hypothalamus. When this are is destroyed in rats it results in constant eating and obesity.
SATURATED FAT: 1. A fat which is incapable of absorbing any more hydrogen. 2. The type of fat typically found in animal products, creams, cheese, milk, ice cream, butter, fats at the edge of meats, lard. Also it is contained in some vegetable oils like coconut, palm.
SBO: Abbreviation for ... "small bowel obstruction".
S.C.: Correctly spelled ... "s.c.". Abbreviation for ... "subcutaneously".
SCABIES: An eruption caused by a mite that burrows into the skin.
SCALENE: Triangular shaped muscle.
SCALENUS: One of the three cervical neck muscles so named and connected to the first two ribs.
SCALL: Disease of the scalp.
SCALPEL: A surgical instrument that resembles a knife.
SCAPHOID: Boat-shaped; hollowed.
SCAPULA: The flat triangular bone in the back of the shoulder. It is also called the "shoulder blade".
SCARLATINA: Another word for "scarlet fever".
SCARLET FEVER: A disease which is contagious resulting in the following symptoms ... fever, chills, sore throat, discolored tongue and skin rash.
SCATEMIA: Poison in the intestinal tract.
SCHATZKI'S RING: A diaphragm in the esophagus (lower third).
SCHEUERMANN'S DISEASE: A problem of the spinal column. It is a condition that typically commences in young people, at the time of puberty. The backbones of the upper back are usually involved resulting in collapse of the front of the bones. Correction at older ages can include surgery, exercise and bracing. Pain is often controlled with medications via epidural injections.
SCHISTASIS: A fissure existing since birth.
SCHIZOPHRENIA: Also called "split mind". It separates behavior, emotions and thinking. It first appears in young adults or late adolescence. The cause is still unknown. Primary symptoms are hallucinations, delusions and irrational speaking. Info can be obtained from the American Psychiatric Association @ 202-682-6000.
SCHWANNOMA: Also called "schwann cell tumor neurilemoma". It is a benign tumor that develops in some nerve coverings.
SCIATICA: A sometimes severe and chronic type of back pain. Usually caused by a slipped or ruptured disc which causes pressure on a large sciatic nerve located in the back of the thigh.
SCHIZOAFFECTIVE: Having a mixture of symptoms including schizophrenia and mood disorder.
SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER: Mental disorders that exhibit mood anomalies combined with schizophrenia.
SCIATIC: Near the hip.
SCIATIC NERVE: Long nerve (the bodies longest) extending through the thigh, leg and foot. It is a nerve cable that exits from the spinal cord of the lower back. Irritation of the nerve can cause back pain and pain all the way to the foot. Two typical problems are bulging discs and narrowing of the spinal canal. Some signs that may be due to sciatica includes leg weakness, numbness in the groin, numbness in the rectal area, difficulty controlling bowel movements, difficulty controlling urination.
SCLERA: The white area of the eye.
SCLERAE ANICTERIC: No evidence of yellow sclerae.
SCLERODERMA: Skin thickening due to fibrous tissue. Internal organs can also be targeted. Most scleroderma patients suffer from Raynaud's disease. Scleroderma Foundation @ 1-800-722-4673.
SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS: A rare liver disease.
-SCLEROSIS: A suffix that means ... "hardening".
SCOLIOSIS: Abnormal S-shaped curvature of the spine causing one shoulder to be higher than the other and one leg longer than the other. Treatment hinges on how large the curve is, how it affects health, the age of the patient and how it progresses yearly. Often scoliosis does not progress after bone matures but some curves continue to increase throughout life. Treatments include back braces and surgery.
-SCOPE: A suffix that means ... "device that allows visual examination".
SCOTOMA: A defect of sight which result in a shimmering film and an area in the visual field where vision is decreased or absent.
SCREENING: Blood analysis to determine disease.
SCROTUM: The pouch that contains the testicles of males.
SCURF: Another word for dandruff.
SCURVY: An outbreak of petechiae due to a Vitamin C deficiency. Symptoms include weakness, bleeding and skin swelling.
SD: Abbreviation for "Skin Dose".
SEBACEOUS: Fatty, oily.
SEBACEOUS CYST: Obstructed (plugged) sebaceous gland (oil gland) which causes swelling. Infected cysts are typically cut open and drained ... then, the line of the cyst is removed.
SEBACEOUS GLANDS: Glands that are located near the surface of the skin ... they excrete fatty oils (sebum) into hair follicles.
SEBORRHEA: Overactive sebaceous gland producing sebum that results in oily skin.
SEBORRHEIC: See "seborrhea".
SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS: A common inflammation of the skin which usually involves the scalp ... is similar to dandruff. Nizoral shampoo is typically prescribed to kill the fungus that is believed to cause it. A powerful medication used to control skin and scalp inflammation is Kenalog spray (cortisone drug) ... long-term use can cause thinning of the scalp skin and shut down the adrenal glands production of cortisone.
SEBORRHEIC KERATOSES: Also called "barnacles". They are patches of skin, which vary in size from 0.33 inch to several inches. They can be black, brown or yellow and appear as though they have been glued to the skin. The surfaces can have small cracks that can give the appearance of cauliflower. They can also have a smooth appearance. They occur in families and do not result in cancer. They can be removed with liquid nitrogen or a curette.
SEBUM: The oily substance that is secreted by the sebaceous glands.
SEC: Correctly spelled ... "sec". Abbreviation for ... "second".
SECONDARY HYPERTENSION: Elevated high blood pressure caused by a disease or infection.
SECOND GENERATION HEPATITIS C ANTIBODY TESTS: Test developed following 1992 as a more sensitive indicator for the antibodies that are produced by the body in response to the hepatitis C virus.
SECOND IMPACT SYNDROME: A swelling of the brain that can lead to coma and death following a concussion).
SECRETIN: A secretion (hormone) which is manufactured in the intestines (small) to stimulate the liver and pancreas.
SECRETOR: One of approximately 85% of the general population who secrete the ABO antigen into body secretions ... i.e., semen, saliva, and perspiration.
SECTI / (O): A combining word-form that means "cut".
SECUNDIGRAVIDA: A female during her second pregnancy.
SECUNDINES: Material of afterbirth.
SEDATIVE: A medication that tranquilizes ... calms nervous irritations.
SEDIMENTATION RATE: An "erythrocyte sedimentation rate" is a blood test used to indicate the presence of inflammation in the body. It is a measurement of how far blood settles to the bottom of a test tube. Slow sedimentation rates are seen with malignancy, intense infections and inflammatory disorders.
SED RATE: A shortened term for ... "sedimentation rate". An "erythrocyte sedimentation rate" is a blood test used to indicate the presence of inflammation in the body. It is a measurement of how far blood settles to the bottom of a test tube. Slow rates are seen with malignancy, intense infections and inflammatory disorders.
SEG's: Segmented leukocyte neutrophils.
SEGMENTED NEUTROPHILS: White blood cells that are in the process of dividing. When a large number of segmented white blood cells are observed it typically means that the body is mounting a vigorous response to infection.
SELDINGER TECHNIQUE: A method of inserting a catheter into an artery or vein.
SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS: A classification of antidepressant medications.
SELENIUM: An antioxidant trace element that is found in shellfish, meat, poultry, grains, garlic, egg yolks. DOSAGE: Recommended daily allowance is approximately 60 micrograms. LIMITS: A toxic reaction can occur at levels above 400 micrograms a day. Selenium is typically involved in enzymes that are antioxidants. Selenium is associated with the lowering of cancer risk (breast, colon, lung and prostate cancers) and diseases involving the blood vessels of the heart. It is also considered an anti-aging agent and preserves the elasticity of tissues. It has also been used to counteract dandruff.
SELENOSIS: A toxic reaction to selenium marked by hair loss and brittle nails.
SELLA: Skull depression that is shaped like a saddle.
SELLA TURCICA: A bony part that resembles a saddle and exists on the upper surface of the sphenoid bone (irregular bone at the base of the skull).
SEMEIOSIS: A philosophy to treat disease based on symptoms.
SEMEN: A fluid of male animals that is capable of impregnating females.
SEMENURIA: A condition where semen is found in urine.
SEMI-: A prefix (word part) meaning "partial" or "half".
SEMICIRCULAR CANALS: Three tubular structures of the ear
SEMILUNAR: The bone of the wrist.
SEMINAL VESICLES: Glands at the base of the urinary bladder that opens into the vas derens where it joins the urethra.
SENESCENT: The condition of being old.
SENILE: Another word for "old".
SENILE KERATODERMA: A lesion that resembles a wart and is considered to be premalignant. It occurs in elderly, light skinned people on areas of the skin, which have been exposed to the sun (face and hands). A cutaneous horn sometimes develops. Squamous (scaly) cell carcinoma may result when left untreated. Synonyms are: actinic keratosis, senile keratoderma, senile keratoma, senile keratosis, keratosis senilis, senile wart, solar keratosis, verruca plana senilis, and verruca senilis.
SENILE KERATOMA: A lesion that resembles a wart and is considered to be premalignant. It occurs in elderly, light skinned people on areas of the skin, which have been exposed to the sun (face and hands). A cutaneous horn sometimes develops. Squamous (scaly) cell carcinoma may result when left untreated. Synonyms are ... actinic keratosis, senile keratoderma, senile keratoma, senile keratosis, keratosis senilis, senile wart, solar keratosis, verruca plana senilis, and verruca senilis.
SENILE KERATOSIS: A lesion that resembles a wart and is considered to be premalignant. It occurs in elderly, light skinned people on areas of the skin, which have been exposed to the sun (face and hands). A cutaneous horn sometimes develops. Squamous (scaly) cell carcinoma may result when left untreated. Synonyms are ... actinic keratosis, senile keratoderma, senile keratoma, senile keratosis, keratosis senilis, senile wart, solar keratosis, verruca plana senilis, and verruca senilis.
SENILE WART: A lesion that resembles a wart and is considered to be premalignant. It occurs in elderly, light skinned people on areas of the skin, which have been exposed to the sun (face and hands). A cutaneous horn sometimes develops. Squamous (scaly) cell carcinoma may result when left untreated. Synonyms are ... actinic keratosis, senile keratoderma, senile keratoma, senile keratosis, keratosis senilis, senile wart, solar keratosis, verruca plana senilis, and verruca senilis.
SENILIS: Cornea.
SENNE: A bad tasting ingredient found in many laxatives. Too much can cause dehydration, diarrhea, nausea and cramping in the abdominal area.
SENSIBILITY: Another word for "sensitivity".
SENSITIZED: Having an immune response to something that was previously contacted.
SENSORIUM: An organ of sensation; hypothetical seat of sensation ... nerve center.
SENSORY: Related to the senses.
SENTIENT: Characterized by sensation ... sensitive.
SENTINEL NODE: The first lymph node in a chain under the arms.
SEPSIS: Bacterial poisoning of the blood that sets off a chain of chemical reactions that results in inflammation and clotting. Death can occur due to the destruction of a person's internal organs.
SEPTATION: Divide into parts.
SEPTIC: Due to putrefaction ... bacterial poisoning.
SEPTICEMIA: Poisoned blood.
SEPTUM: A partition that separates two cavities.
SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM: Also called ... "transparent septum". Brain tissue that contains a thin plate of nerve cells and fibers. It is located in the vicinity of the corpus callosum.
SEQUELAE: 1. A condition which is due to a disease ... disease after effects. 2. Sequelae can also mean, "complication".
SEQUESTRUM: A fragment of dead bone that is separated (totally or partly) from a nearby bone. Plural is sequestra.
SERINE: An amino acid which is categorized as ... "non-essential" (note that this does not mean the amino acid is not essential to the body ... rather, it means the amino acid is not produced by the body and must be obtained by outside sources). It assists in the liver and muscle storage of glucose. It also improves the immune system by helping to manufacture antibodies and the sheath around nerves.
SERM: Abbreviation for ... "selective estrogen receptor modulator" medications (example, Evista) which duplicates the effect of estrogen on some estrogen-sensitive tissues of the body (excluding breast and uterine tissue).
SEROLOGIC: Relating to "serology".
SEROLOGY: The science of serums and how they react.
SEROMA: A mass that results from the collection of serum in an organ or tissue.
SERONEGATIVE: A serum test (typically a blood test) which is negative.
SEROPOSITIVE: A serum test (typically a blood test) which is positive.
SEROSANGUINEOUS: Denoting an exudate or discharge composed of serum and blood.
SEROTONIN: A vasoconstrictor chemical associated with sleep, concentration and relaxation. It is found in the brain, gastrointestinal tract (inhibits gastric secretions) and blood (released by platelets). Stimulates circulation ... smooth muscles. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter critical to mood changes. A shortage of serotonin can lead to feelings of depression and low self-worth. The serotonin molecule is used by nerve cells to complete the execution of electrical signals across synaptic gaps. Also, it will naturally convert into melatonin in the pineal gland of the brain. There appears to be a link between serotonin and appetite, mood, awareness of pain and sleep. Serotonin abnormalities have been associated with aggression, anxiety, alcohol abuse, depression, drug abuse, eating disorders, headaches (including migraines), irritability, seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and sleep disorders.
SEROTYPING: i.e. Influenza types; see serovar.
SEROUS: Watery.
SEROUS FLUID: Thin, watery fluid.
SEROVAR: A subdivision of a species distinguishable from other strains.
SERPIGINOUS: Denoting a wavy margin.
SERRATE: Notched or toothed on the edge.
SERUM: The clear fluid portion of blood.
SERUM HEPATITIS: Hepatitis (viral) transmitted via human blood exposure.
SESAMOID: Referring to the "sesamoid" bone.
SESAMOID BONE: A bone within a tendon.
SGOT: Abbreviation for "serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase". It is an enzyme that (in the liver) helps to remove excess nitrogen by converting it into aspirate that is then disposed in the urine.
SGPT: Abbreviation for ... "serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase". Also called ... "ALT" (alanine aminotransferase). It is an enzyme seen predominantly in the liver and released into the blood system when the liver is damaged.
SHANK: The area of the leg that extends from the ankle to the knee.
SHARPS CONTAINER: A storage device for used needles.
SHEATH: Tube like structure that surrounds parts of the body i.e. the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle.
SHIGELLA: Dysentery causing organism.
SHILE-BORG: Mechanical valve (aortic valve replacement).
SHILEY: A type of catheter.
SHIN: The area of the lower leg located anteriorly (in front).
SHINGLES: Herpes zoster. It is the chickenpox virus that causes shingles and can hide in nerve cells for life. Outbreaks result in rash and pain. Post herpetic neuralgia is a painful and sometimes excruciating complication of shingles that can damage nerves. Primarily this is a disease of older people but is known to affect children rarely. Usually people only have one episode of the disease in their life. However, multiple recurrences are not unheard of.
SHIN SPLINTS: A condition of pain and inflammation of the muscles region.
SHOCK: An abnormality which occurs in the blood system which results in a large decrease in blood pressure, fast pulse, sweaty skin, pallor and fast heart rate.
SHORT LEG CAST: A device (mold) which is meant to keep bone(s) in place.
SHORTNESS OF BREATH: Causes include lung illness (bronchitis and emphysema) ... major heart failure (fails to pump adequate blood to the lungs) ... blood illness (low red blood cell count.
SHOTTY: Currently being researched.
SHOTTY CERVICAL LYMPHADENOPATHY: Currently being researched.
SHOULDER CAPSULE: A sleeve of tissues and ligaments that holds the shoulder joint in place.
SHOULDER CUFF: See "cuff". Currently being researched.
SHOW: A discharge that occurs from the vagina prior to the commencement (beginning) of labor.
SHUCK: Currently being researched.
SHUNT: To bypass ... a connection between two points ... often used when referring to blood vessels.
SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME: Encephalomyelopathy resulting in iris atrophy. It resembles Parkinson's and usually targets older people. Symptoms include rigid muscles, a shuffled walk, poor balance, and dizziness when getting up from a sitting or lying position, loss of bladder control, constipation, lack of sweating. It is considered to be a nervous system problem because the nerve reflex that constricts arteries to maintain blood pressure is not operational. By standing, the blood pressure is lost and dizziness or fainting is a result. Sufferers of this disease ailment should consume a lot of salt that retains body fluids to counteract falling blood pressures. Often prescribed is the medication Florinef for a salt retention. Tight elastic stocking should be worn to keep blood from pooling in the legs ... this stagnation in leg veins can cause blood pressure to drop.
SI: Abbreviation for "sacroiliac".
SIADH: Abbreviation for "Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of antidiuretic hormone".
SIALADEN: Another word for "salivary gland".
SIALADENITIS: Salivary gland inflammation.
SIALAGOGUE: Something, which promotes the flow of saliva.
SIALINE: Referring to saliva.
SIALOLITHIASIS: A medical term for stones in the salivary glands or ducts. The stones develop due to high calcium and phosphate salts in saliva. Dry mouth may occur in sufferers due to the blockage of saliva. Treatment may be as simple as a dentist or oral surgeon manually manipulating the stone by pushing or squeezing the stone out of the duct. Surgical incision may be required in other cases. Surgical removal of the gland itself is a treatment for chronic cases. These types of stones are not dangerous and are not related to cancer.
SICCATIVE: Another word for "drying".
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA: A blood disorder that is identified by crescent (sickle) shaped red blood cells.
SICK SINUS SYNDROME: Irregular atrial functioning demonstrated by changes in the P-wave of an EKG. Also, characterized by bradycardia, ectopic beats and tachycardia. Note that is has nothing to do with head sinuses. It is a condition in which specialized cells of the heart fail to provide the electrical impulses that keep the heart beating regularly. Dizziness, fainting and confusing can result due to lack of oxygen to the brain. A viral infection of the heart or a blockage that restricts blood to the sinus node is sometimes the cause but more times than not a clear cause cannot be given. The cure is usually the installation of a heart pacemaker.
SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA: A condition where hemoglobin does not contain enough iron ... lack of oxygen. Can be due to bone marrow disorders, lead poisoning, alcohol consumption. Blood transfusions can alleviate symptoms for a while. A small percentage responds to the B-vitamin pyridoxine.
SIDS: Abbreviation for "sudden infant death syndrome". Also, called "crib death". It strikes normal (?) babies and even the most prompt emergency treatment is usually ineffective.
SIGMOID: Something in the shape of an "S".
SIGMOIDOSCOPE: Device used to inspect the lower colon ... it is a thin, flexible lighted tube.
SIGMOIDOSCOPY: A procedure which uses a sigmoidoscope (device used to inspect the lower colon) ... it is a thin, flexible lighted tube which inspects the lower area of the bowels (colon).
SIGN: Something seen by the examiner. It is indicative of a problem.
SILENT GALLSTONES: Those that do not promote a gallstone attack.
SILICON: A mineral that is categorized as "non-essential". Body structures that contain a relatively large amount of silicon ... include arteries; connective tissue, cornea, the whites of the eye (sclera), tendons. Silicon is found in cartilage and the material which "glues" cells together.
SILICOSIS: A lung condition seen in those who work with stone dust.
SIMPLE FACEMASK: See section on "oxygen supplementation".
SINCIPUT: The upper portion of the head.
SINEW: Another word for tendon.
SINGEING: As with a burn.
SINGULTUS: Hiccup. They are spasms of the diaphragm muscle. Chronic hiccups can be treated by injecting a drug called "chlorpromazine". Also, electrical stimulation of the nerve which serves the diaphragm (phrenic nerve).
SINISTER: Another word for "left".
SINOATRIAL NODE: The "pacemaker of the heart". It initiates the electrical signals, which causes the heart to beat ... located in the upper right chamber of the heart.
SINUS: 1) An opening or cavity of a bone. 2) One of the air filled spaces behind and below the eyes which help to amplify the voice. They are lined by thin membrane that manufactures mucus.
SINUSES OF VALSALVA: Three hollow areas located in the wall of the primary heart artery (aorta).
SINUSITIS: A condition in which one or more of the air-filled spaces around the nose becomes blocked and inflamed. Symptoms include stuffy, congested nose, sinus pressure and headache pain. Decongestants reduce the pressure to relieve the pressure and are often combined with pain relievers.
SINUS NODE: An area of specialized heart cells that acts to provide the electrical impulses that beats the heart.
SINUSOID: Pertaining to the sinusoidal capillary which is a blood vessel that exhibits a larger and more irregular width than typical capillaries.
SINUSOIDAL CAPILLARY: Blood vessels that are thin-walled and larger than ordinary capillaries.
SINUSOTOMY: To cut into a sinus.
SINUS RHYTHM: An expected natural, regular heart rhythm.
SIRIASIS: The medical term for "sunstroke". (Note: if looking for the skin disease then see "psoriases".)
SITUS INVERSUS: Reversing position. For example, a heart being where the liver should be and vice versa.
SITZ-BATH: A sitting bath used for therapy.
SKELALGIA: Pain in the leg.
SKIN: The largest immune organ of the body. It excretes immunity agents to protect us when injured.
SKULL: The 22 bones of the head.
SJOGREN'S SYNDROME: Lymphocytes invade salivary glands causing dry mouth. Sometimes the tear ducts are also affected to cause dry eyes. Sometimes prescribed is the medicine "Salagen" which can stimulate saliva production.
SLAP CHEEK DISEASE": Also called "fifth disease" or "erythema infectiosa" or ""parvovirus B-19". A childhood disease that usually runs its course in 1-3 weeks ... it is similar to the measles and produces a runny nose and sometimes headache. During the fifth to sixth day the child's cheeks turn bright red and a rash typically covers the body. Adults have also been known to contract the disease and the symptoms may include joint pain and swelling that mirrors rheumatoid arthritis (not permanent). However, sometimes the joint pain and swelling can last for months and even years. Also, inflamed heart muscles may occur in adults but rarely in children.
SLEEPING SICKNESS: Also called "encephalitis". A brain infection which results in drowsiness.
SLING: A method of supporting and extremity (leg or arm).
SLING AND SWATHE: A method of immobilizing the arm.
SLIPPED DISC: Also referred to as ... "ruptured disc" ... "ruptured invertebral disc" ... "herniated invertebral disc" ... "herniated nucleus pulposus". It is a breach in the cartilage that encompasses a spinal disc. Fluids leak out and are no longer available to cushion the backbones thus causing pain and damage to nerve roots. Typically occurs in the low back region and associated with intense trauma or strain. Symptoms may include pain of the lower back with pain radiating down one leg ... pain in the neck radiating down one arm. The pain increases with activity, laughing, coughing or strained bowl movements. Muscle weakness and/or numbness can result depending on which spinal nerve is involved. The most common complications are bowel and bladder dysfunctions. Treatments include surgery (laminectomy) ... medications (muscle relaxants and analgesics) ... natural methods. The natural method makes use of hot and cold compresses to control pain and exercise to shore up abdominal and back muscles. Back braces and traction is often prescribed. Finally, education in relaxation and proper posture to rejuvenate.
SLIT LAMP: An eye examining instrument that combines a microscope and rectangular source of light that can be narrowed into a slit.
SLIT LAMP EXAM: A type of eye exam that uses a "slit lamp".
SLOUGH: Dead skin ready to separate from the good skin.
SMA: Abbreviation for "sequential multi-channel auto-analyzer".
SMA-6: Abbreviation for "Sequential Multi-channel Auto Analyzer". Sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, blood urea nitrogen and glucose.
SMA-12: SMA-6 plus creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT); serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT); Protein and Albumin.
SMAC: Abbreviation for "sequential multiple analyzer computer". It is a blood test performed by a general, chemistry panel, and screening tool. It provides measurements for sodium, potassium, chloride, CO2, creatinine, BUN, glucose, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, GGT (gamma glutamyl transpeptidase), SGPT, LDH, CPK, cholesterol, triglycerides, amylase, lactic acid and magnesium.
SMALL BOWEL ENEMA: A barium liquid enema that is placed into the small intestines by passing a small tube through the nose (or mouth). This procedure is typically performed to enhance x-rays of the small intestines.
SMALL BOWEL FOLLOW THROUGH: A barium liquid enema which is placed into the small intestines by passing a small tube through the nose (or mouth). This procedure is typically performed to enhance x-rays of the small intestines.
SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER: Also called ... "oat cell cancer". The name is derived due to the fact that the cancer cells resemble (under a microscope) small, "oat grains". It develops in the airways of the lungs (bronchi) and can quickly spread to the adrenal glands, brain, bones and liver. Typical treatment in the year 2001 consists of radiation and chemotherapy. The usual cause is from tobacco smoke, asbestos and radiation.
SMALL INTESTINE: The longest portion of the digestive tract and the primary site of food absorption ... it is located between the stomach and large intestine. It is divided into three parts: 1) the duodenum, 2) ileum, 3) jejunum.
SMALLPOX: A contagious viral disease that results in erupted pustules (red spots containing pus) which often cause permanent scarring. Other symptoms include fever, vomiting and pain.
SMEAR: A sample of a body secretion placed on a piece of glass for study under the microscope.
SMITH-PETERSEN GOOSENECK GOUGE: Surgical instrument / aid ... designed to cut bone.
SMT: Abbreviation for ... "spinal manipulation therapy".
SNUFFBOX: A triangular depression on the dorsum of the wrist at its radial border ... anatomical snuffbox.
SNUFFLES: A nasal discharge that occurs in infants ... yellow in color.
SODIUM: Categorized as an essential mineral. An abnormal increase in the amount of sodium results in the accumulation of watery fluid in cells (edema). An abnormally low level of sodium in the body can lead to dehydration. The sodium in the body is primarily concentrated in bones ... a minute amount migrates to the interior of cells ... the remainder of the body's sodium in found in the fluids in the immediate vicinity of cells. Sodium is known to be involved in various body processes like ... preserve fluid equilibrium, nerve pulse transmissions, muscle tension at rest and transportation of nutrients. Blood serum sodium levels are seen during extreme sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, frequent urinations. Medications can also cause increased sodium levels like carbenoxolone, diazoxide, guanethidine, licorice, methyldopa, oxyphenbutazone, sodium bicarbonate, methoxyflurane, and reserpine.
SODIUM ALGINATE: A carbohydrate derived from seaweed. It provides protection from many types of carcinogens, pollutants and other poisons. It is also said to block the absorption of radioactive materials into living tissue. Also, it is said to normalize bowel abnormalities.
SODOKOSIS: Another word for "rat bite fever".
SODOMY: Another word for male sexual relations. Also, "bestiality".
SOFT PALATE: The posterior (rear) area of the palate.
SOLAR FEVER: Also called ... "aden fever", "bouquet fever", breakbone fever", "dandy fever", "date fever", "dengue fever", "exanthesis arthrosia", "polka fever", "scarlatina rheumatica", "dengue". A viral disease that exists in tropical and subtropical areas of the world ... transmitted by mosquitos. Grade I symptoms are fever and general constitutional problems. Grade II symptoms are the same as Grade I but with spontaneous bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract, gums and skin. Grade III symptoms are the same as the first two but with circulatory failure added. Grade IV symptoms add to the first three profound shocks.
SOLAR KERATOSIS: A lesion that resembles a wart and is considered to be premalignant. It occurs in elderly, light skinned people on areas of the skin, which have been exposed to the sun (face and hands). A cutaneous horn sometimes develops. Squamous (scaly) cell carcinoma may result when left untreated. Synonyms are: actinic keratosis, senile keratoderma, senile keratoma, senile keratosis, keratosis senilis, senile wart, solar keratosis, verruca plana senilis, and verruca senilis.
SOLAR PLEXUS: The upper portion of the abdomen where nerves congregate.
SOLEUS: Leg muscle.
SOLUBLE: Capable of being dissolved.
SOLUTION: A mixture of solids and liquids.
SOLVENT: A mixture of solids and liquids that dissolves substances.
SOMATALGIA: Generalized body aches.
SOMATIC: Pertaining to the body in general ... cells of the body other than egg or sperm.
SOMATIC CELL NUCLEAR TRANSFER: The transfer of a cell nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg from which the nucleus has been removed.
SOMATIZATION: Physical symptoms being caused by psychological reasons.
SOMNAMBULANCE: 1. Sleepwalking; a condition occurring during sleep that is marked by moving parts of the body, usually ending up by walking about with no memory whatsoever upon awakening. 2. A hypnotic state which is characterized by full possession of the senses with no memory of an episode afterwards.
SOMNAMBULISM: Another word for "sleep walking".
SOMNIFACIENT: Something that causes sleep.
SOMNIFEROUS: Something that causes sleep.
SOMNILOQUISM: Sleep talking.
SOMNOLENCE: Sleepiness.
SOMNOLENT: Another word for "sleepy".
SAPONATUS: Combined with soap.
SOPOR: Another word for "coma".
SOPORIFIC: Something that causes sleep.
SOR: Abbreviation for "stimulus-organism response".
SORE THROAT: Inflamed tonsils, pharynx (throat) or larynx (voice box).
SPACE OF RETZIUS: The area "behind the pubic bone".
SPACER BLOCKS: Surgical instrument / aid.
SPARGOSIS: Breast swelling due to accumulation of milk.
SPASM: The tensing of a muscle (involuntary).
SPASMODIC: Referring to "spasms".
SPASMOLYTIC: Something that counteracts spasms.
SPASMOPHEMIA: Another word for "stuttering".
SPASTIC: Referring to spasms.
SPASTICITY: Sustained, increased muscle contraction.
SPECULUM: Instrument used to enlarge a cavity or canal.
SPERM: The male liquid that is responsible for female fertilization.
SPERMATOCELE: Also called ... "spermatocyst". A cyst (containing sperm) located on the long structure connected to the posterior surface of the testes for the transportation of sperm.
SPERMATOCIDAL: Something that kills sperm.
SPERMATOCYST: Also called ... "spermatocele". A cyst (containing sperm) located on the long structure connected to the posterior surface of the testes for the transportation of sperm.
SP GR: Correctly spelled ... "sp gr". Abbreviation for ... "specific gravity".
SPHACELATE: Referring to gangrene (death of body tissue).
SPHENOID BONE: An irregularly shaped bone at the base of the skull.
SPHEROCYTOSIS: Condition of diseased red blood cells.
SPHINCTER: A type of body muscle that closes an opening.
SPHINCTEROTOME: Currently being researched.
SPHINGOMYELIN LIPIDOSIS: Also called ... "Niemann-Pick disease" and "Niemann disease". An inherited ailment that occurs mostly in Jewish infants and typically leads to early death ... a lesser form rarely inflicts adults. It results in a gathering of phospholipids (a lipid containing phosphorus) in macrophages (immunity cells) of the bone marrow, liver, lymph glands and spleen ... this results in an enlarged spleen, lymph nodes and liver. It also results in malnutrition.
SPHYGM / (O): A combining word-form that means "pulse".
SPHYGMIC: Referring to "pulses".
SPHYGMOMANOMETER: A device used to measure blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff.
SPICA BANDAGE: A roller bandage that is applied in a spiral manner around a limb ... figure of eight.
SPIDER ANGIOMATA: Arterial spider. Small branches extending from an arteriole of the skin which resembles the legs of a spider. Characteristic of liver disease and pregnancy.
SPIGELIAN HERNIA: A hernia located below the navel and to the right or left. They can be serious if a part of the intestine is trapped there.
SPINA: Another word for "spine".
SPINA BIFIDA: Incomplete closing of the bony covering which surrounds the spinal cord.
SPINAL COLUMN: A series of bones that make up the "backbone". A hollow "canal" passes through the center of "backbone" and houses the "spinal cord" (diameter approximately equal to one's little finger). The spinal cord passes information to and from the brain in the form of electrical nerve impulses.
SPINAL CORD: A portion of the nervous system that transmits electrical impulses to and from the brain ... enclosed by the "spinal column".
SPINAL CURVATURE: A bend in the spine that deviates away from the normal.
SPINAL FRACTURE: Another word for "broken back".
SPINALIS MUSCLE: A portion of the erector spine muscle consisting of the spinalis capitis, spinalis cervices and spinalis thoracis muscle.
SPINAL NERVES: Thirty-one pairs of nerves which connect to the spinal cord and send fibers to muscles of the ... trunk ... extremities ... involuntary nerve fibers leading glands and muscles (smooth) of the GI (Gastrointestinal), GU (Genitourinary) and C.V. (Cardiovascular) systems.
SPINE: Another word for the sharp "backbone" ... T-spine; LS-spine; C-spine.
SPINE-TECH: Surgical instrument / aid ... for bone harvesting.
SPIRADENITIS: Also called ... "hidradenitis", "hydradenitis". Sweat gland inflammation.
SPIRIT: A solution that usually consists of 10% alcohol.
SPIRITS OF AMMONIA: Combination of alcohol and ammonia.
SPIROMETER: An instrument that indicates the quantity of gasses contained in larger vessels.
SPIROMETRY: Making pulmonary measurements with a spirometer.
SPLEEN: Located in the upper left side of the abdomen near the stomach. It is the largest structure of the lymph system. It frees up hemoglobin which the liver processes into bilirubin. It gobbles up platelets. It is commonly believed that the spleen has many other purposes that are not fully understood. A ruptured spleen can cause death due to massive bleeding. Anytime the spleen is enlarged it is vulnerable. Mono causes an enlarged spleen.
SPLENALGIA: Spleen pain.
SPLENAUXE: An enlarged spleen.
SPLENECTOMY: The removal of the spleen.
SPLENIC: Referring to the spleen.
SPLENIC FLEXURE: Also called the "left colic flexure". It is the area (bend) which occurs where the descending and transverse colon meet.
SPLENIC FLEXURE SYNDROME: A pain that recurs due to a pocket of gas that is trapped in the large intestine located just below the spleen.
SPLENITIS: Spleen inflammation.
SPLENIUS CAPITIS MUSCLE: The muscle that rotates the head and extends the neck.
SPLENOHEPATOMEGALY: Spleen and liver enlargement.
SPLENOLYSIS: Destruction of spleen tissue.
SPLENOMA: A tumor of the spleen.
SPLENOMEGALY: Spleen enlargement.
SPLINT: A device used to immobilize and protect and injured body part ... air; air stirrup; Alumafoam; AOA; fiberglass; Lewin-Stern; OCL; orthoglass; pillow; spica; sugar tong; ulnar gutter splint; Thomas;
SpO2: Arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation ... oxygen saturation as measured using pulse oximetry.
SPONDYLE: Another word for "vertebra".
SPONDYLITIS: Spine inflammation.
SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: Foreword movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra below it.
SPONDYLOLYSIS: A condition marked by dissolution of a spinal vertebra.
SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: Also called ... "mad cow disease". The alarming spread of this brain-destroying illness has affected Britain and several other European and Asian countries.
SPONGE STICK: Surgical instrument / aid. Currently being researched.
SPORE: 1) The reproductive body of fungi or sporozoan protozoa. 2) A resistant form of certain bacteria.
SPRUE: A chronic form of malabsorption syndrome ... sufferer cannot absorb needed nutrients.
SPUR: A condition that occurs when tissue is irritated ... the body tries to protect the area by producing a calcium "patch" (spur).
SPURLING TEST: A test for the cervical spine. It is performed by applying compression of the head with extension of the neck to cause upper extremity radicular pain.
SPUTUM: A discharge from the mouth that often originates in the lungs.
SQ: Abbreviation for "subcutaneous".
SQUAMA: Another word for "scale".
SQUAMOUS: Relating to or covered with scales.
SSRI: Abbreviation for "serotonin reuptake inhibitors". Used to treat depression.
STABS: Band cells; part of the total count of white blood cells. Immature form of polymorphonuclear neutrophils.
STACTOMETER: Instrument used to measure droplets.
STAGE: To check to see how far something has spread ... i.e cancer.
STAGHORN CALCULUS: A "stone" with branches that appears in the renal pelvis.
STAMEY NEEDLE: Surgical instrument.
STAPEDECTOMY: A surgical procedure to restore hearing due to osteosclerosis (hardening of tissues in the inner ear).
STAPES: A portion of the middle ear ... small bone. Also known as the stirrup.
STAPH: Short for "staphylococcus" which are bacteria ... germs. They are very common and can invade the skin through small breaks to result in infections like boils that can be painful but not lethal. Staph blood infections can be lethal. Staph can infect organs and staph bone infections are major concern. Antibiotics are used to treat these infections. Note that many Staph germs have developed immunity to common antibiotics like Penicillin. Symptoms can include high fever, sweats, and chills.
STAPHYLOCOCCAL: Referring to "Staphylococcus".
STAPHYLOCOCCUS: Bacteria that cause infections ... productive of pus.
STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS: Common bacteria that can cause cellulitis, endocarditis, food poisoning, pneumonia, pyemia, furunculosis and osteomyelitis.
STAPLE: A method of closing skin wounds ... 3-M, surgical stable, etcetera.
-STASIS: A suffix that means ... "stop".
STASIS: 1. Stagnation of blood or other fluids. 2. Slowing down or stopping ... keeping in check.
STASIS CIRRHOSIS: Disease of the liver ... hardening of tissue distorts the liver and impedes it from performing it's many tasks ... caused by an obstruction of the hepatic vein.
STASIS DERMATITIS: An eruption of the skin that resembles eczema. It is sometimes caused by varicose veins that leak into adjacent tissues. Symptoms include swollen skin, split skin and the formation of an ulcer. In the later stages brown-red patches develop on this skin which is painful or pruritic (itchy). The swelling can be reduced by elevating the leg.
STASIS LIVER: A liver that has an obstructed hepatic vein.
STASIS ULCER: Open sores typically occurring at the ankles. Caused by stretched leg veins that retain blood. Liquids seep out of the veins due to high pressure and an ulcer develops due to lack of oxygen and nutrition to skin cells. Treatment includes the evacuation of the excess fluid by elevating the limb as much as possible to allow gravity to pull the liquids away from the leg veins. Another treatment is to wrap the area with leg bandages (compression stocking or compression bandages). Healing can be promoted by covering the ulcer with water retention dressing like DuoDerm. Also, Apligraf dressing contains skin cells and needs to be replaced only once a week. If healing is not noted within six months then skin grafts are to be considered.
STAT: From the Latin word "statinum" which means ... "immediately".
STATINS: One of several prescription drugs that reduce high blood pressure. They work by interfering with the ability of the liver to produce "bad" cholesterol (LDL) which attaches to artery walls and prevents blood from reaching the heart. Examples are Lipitor, Pravachol, Zocor and Mevacor.
STD: Abbreviation for ... "sexually transmitted disease".
STEATORRHEA: Large amounts of fat in stool ... seen in diseases of the pancreas and malabsorption syndrome.
STEEPLE SIGN: A narrowing of the larynx.
STELLATE: In the form of a "star".
STEM CELLS: 1) Cells that have the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells. 2) The factories that manufacture various kinds of tissue inside the body. Embryonic stem cells can form into immature nervous system cells by treating them with retinoic acid. Stem cells are the body's mother cells, they divide repeatedly to form new tissue, such as skin and blood cells. For generations, scientific belief held that the adult brain cannot repair itself, because it lacks stem cells. However, scientists currently think that the adult brain does contain stem cells (although their exact function is still a mystery). But in the laboratory, they divide over and over again, making new neurons. The only source of these brain stem cells is the patient's own brain. However, brain "stem cells" may not be a required ingredient for making new brain tissue. Scientists believe it may be possible to reprogram more readily available kinds of stem cells, such as the ones that produce skin, so that they will manufacture brain cells. 3) Primitive blood cells (forefathers of red and white blood cells) that are sometimes infused into bone marrow to stimulate the production of bone marrow.
STENOPEIC: A slit or narrow opening.
-STENOSIS: A suffix that means ... "narrowing".
STENSEN'S DUCT: See "parotid duct".
STENT: A slender rod usually made from metal which is placed in tubular structures like arteries to provide support and keep them open. It is often used to treat a blocked heart artery by being snaked into position with a tube made from plastic. Also, a mold for keeping a skin graft in place.
STERILE: That which is free from bacteria or other living microorganisms.
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID: Refers to a specific muscle group, artery, and vein.
STERNOTOMY: Incision into the "sternum".
STERNALGIA: Sternum pain.
STERNUTATORY: Something that causes sneezing.
STERNODYNIA: Sternum pain.
STERNUM: The breastbone.
STEROIDS: 1. Steroids are hormonal substances that have similar chemical structures. 2. Anti-inflammatory drugs which combat diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid diseases. Long-term use of these drugs can lead to brittle-bone disease (osteoporosis).
STEROLINS: Plant fats.
STEROLS: Plant fats ... A subgroup of steroids.
STETHOSCOPE: Device used to amplify sounds ... used to detect body sounds.
STEVENS SCISSORS: A type of surgical instrument.
STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Also called ... "erythema multiforme". The cause is unknown but often it is observed to occur when medications or infections are present. Symptoms may include a rash (red and blue patches). The mouth often develops blisters which may blend together to make painful ulcers. Blisters may also develop on the clear portions of the eyes (conjunctivae). Sufferers may also experience fever and extreme headaches. Note that the syndrome leads to death in a small percentage of patients. Typical treatment in the year 2001 is the medication Prednisone (cortisone drug).
STEVIA: A natural alternative to refined sugars and artificial sweeteners. Said to counteract tooth decay, bleeding gums, cold sores, and sore throats. Also counteracts the development of dental plaque. Purported to have anti-diabetic properties.
STIGMA: A mark on the skin ... or tissue.
STILLBIRTH: The birth of a dead baby.
STIMULANT: Something that increases the functional activities of body tissues.
STIPPLING: A speckling of a blood cell.
STITCH: A sewing method.
STOIC: Apparently indifferent.
STOKES-ADAMS SYNDROME: Episodes of sudden loss of consciousness.
STOMA: 1. Another word for "mouth". 2. A stoma can also be an artificial opening performed by surgery.
STOMACH: A large sac that is shaped in an irregular manner and located between the esophagus and small intestine.
STOMAL: Referring to a stoma (mouth).
STOMAT / O: A combining word-form that means "mouth".
STOMATALGIA: Mouth pain.
STOMATITIS: Inflammation in the mouth of a mucous membrane.
STOMATOMYCOSIS: Fungus of the mouth.
STOMATOPATHY: Any disease of the mouth (or other disorder).
STOOL: Another word for "excrement" (feces).
STP: Abbreviation for Subtherapeutic.
STRABISMUS: A squint. A deviation of the eye from the normal line of vision which the patient cannot overcome.
STRANGURY: Pain with urination.
STRAP MUSCLES: Musculi infrahyoidei ... under musculus.
STRATIFIED: Another word for "layered".
STRATUM: Layer of tissue.
STREP THROAT: Bacterial illness that primarily affects children ... treated with antibiotics.
STREPTOCOCCAL: Referring to "Streptococcus".
STREPTOCOCCUS: Spherical bacteria grouped in long chains ... cause of many diseases.
STREPTOKINASE: An enzyme that is known to break down blood clots.
STRESS ECHO: This is a test that is similar to the stress test described below. However, following the exercise portion of the test the patient is asked to immediately lie down on an adjacent table while a technician takes a wound wave picture of the stressed heart.
STRESS TEST: A test that stresses the heart by forcing it to pump harder through exercise. On the usual stress test the patient is required to run on a treadmill. Every three minutes the incline and speed is increased. While this is happening an electrocardiogram records and detects problems with blood flow through the heart.
STRETTA: A surgical procedure that corrects GERD (heartburn) by passing a tube (containing an electric device) through the mouth and into the esophagus (A muscular tube that measures between 7-10 inches in length and connects the mouth with the stomach). At the lowest portion of the esophagus the physician activates the device and radio waves expand create a smaller passage by expanding the esophageal lining which then restricts digestive juices from backing up into the esophagus.
STRIA: Line or other mark on the skin.
STRIATE: Streaky.
STRICTURE: A narrowing of a hollow structure.
STRIDOR: A high-pitched breath sound.
STROKE: The death of brain cells due to an interruption of blood flow (due to a blood clot) in one of the brain's arteries. Symptoms include weakness and difficulty speaking ... also referred to as CVA or "cerebrovascular accident".
STROMA: An organ's supportive tissue ... plural = "stromata".
STRUMA: Another word for "goiter".
STRUMECTOMY: The surgical removal of the thyroid.
STUDY PHASE: This term refers to clinical trials and are identified as I, II or III. Phase I of clinical trials tests a new medication or treatment on a small group of subjects (20-80) to evaluate safety issues like dosages and side effects. Phase II requires a larger amount of subjects to be used (100-300). Phase III is given to a large amount of people (1,000-3,000) for the purpose of confirming the results of the first two study phases.
STY: Infected eyelid gland.
STYLET: A wire running through a catheter or cannula to render it stiff.
STYLOID: Denotes one of many bony processes.
STYLUS: A surgical instrument / aid which resembles a sharp tipped writing instrument.
STYPTIC: Something that has an astringent effect ... i.e., contract tissues, contracts blood vessels.
SUB-: A prefix (word part) meaning "beneath".
SUBACROMIAL: Below the acromion process (highest and outermost projection of the shoulder).
SUBACROMIAL BURSA: A fluid filled sac in the shoulder joint.
SUBACUTE: A term used to identify something that is neither acute nor chronic in character (something in between).
SUBAPICAL: Below the apex.
SUBCAPSULAR: Referring to an area below an outer covering.
SUBCHORIONIC: Situated below the chorion.
SUBCLAVIAN: Beneath the collarbone.
SUBCLAVIAN ARTERIES: Two arteries located beneath the shoulder bone (clavicle).
SUBCLINICAL INFECTION: A mild infection ... symptoms are typically not detectible except via serology.
SUBCOSTAL: Below the ribs.
SUBCUTANEOUS: Beneath the skin.
SUBCUTANEOUS EMPHYSEMA: Free air in the tissues under the skin. The air can develop from a bursting of an airway in the lung that moves through the chest between the lungs and up into the neck. The face, chest and neck look to be swollen.
SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE: Tissue located just below the skin.
SUBCUTICULAR: Beneath the cuticle (epidermis).
SUBDURAL: Outside the brain.
SUBENDOCARDIAL: Beneath the endocardium.
SUBHEPATIC: Referring to an area beneath the liver.
SUBLIMATION: Passing directly to a gas from a solid ... bypassing the liquid stage.
SUBLINGUAL: Below the tongue.
SUBLINGUAL GLAND: A gland located beneath the tongue that secretes saliva.
SUBLOBULAR VEIN: One of the liver veins that lead to the central veins and in turn empty into the hepatic veins.
SUBLUXATION: An incomplete dislocation.
SUBMAXILLA: Another word for "mandible".
SUBMAXILLARY GLAND: A gland located along the jaw that secretes saliva.
SUBMENTAL: Below the chin.
SUBPHRENIC: Below the diaphragm.
SUBPHRENIC SPACE: A space located on either side of the fold in the thin membrane (peritoneum) which covers most of the abdominal organs (falciform ligament) ... between the bottom of the diaphragm and upper side of the liver.
SUBSEROSAL: Surgical term ... Currently being researched.
SUBSTRATE: 1. The material that is acted upon (changed) by enzymes. 2. The material in which an organism grows.
SUBTUBERAL: Located beneath any tuber (localized swelling).
SUBUNGUAL: Beneath the finger or toenail.
SUCCUSSION: A procedure of shaking the body to discover a splashing sound in a body cavity that contains fluid and gas.
SUCCUSSION SPLASH: A procedure of shaking the body to discover a splashing sound in a body cavity that contains fluid and gas.
SUCRALFATE: An agent that puts a protective coating at the base of ulcers.
SUDATION: Another word for "perspiration".
SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME: A phenomenon that sometimes strikes infants between the age of two weeks and two years. Unexplained death that occurs for apparently no reason to otherwise healthy babies ... cause is unknown.
SUDORESIS: An abnormally increased amount of sweating.
SUDORIFIC: Something which promotes perspiration, sweating.
SUGAR: People typically consume half a cup of sugar per day in America (year 2000). In order to digest sugar the body uses its reserves of chromium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc and magnesium. It is to be noted that these same minerals are required by the immunity system. In other words, by eating sugars the body becomes more susceptible to disease.
SULCI: Plural of "sulcus".
SULCUS: One of the groves of the brain.
SULFA DRUGS: A category of various drugs used to treat diseases caused by bacteria.
SULFONYLUREA: Medications chemically related to the sulfonamides ... they possess hypoglycemic action.
SULFONYLUREAS: A group of drugs chemically related to the sulfonamides (hypoglycemics).
SULFUR: Also called ... "brimstone". An element involved in the growth of bones, the clotting of blood and muscle metabolism. It combines with toxic substances and transfers them into harmless compounds.
SUPERCILIUM: Another word for "eyebrow".
SUPERINFECTION: Secondary infection.
SUPEROMEDIAL: A word that means ... above and toward the middle.
SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE: An antioxidant enzyme ... prevents free-radical damage.
SUPINE: A body position that requires lying on one's back.
SUPPOSITORY: Medicine that is given in solid form to areas other than the mouth ... usually the rectum.
SUPPURATION: Expelling pus.
SUPPURATIVE: Forming pus.
SUPRA-: A prefix (word part) meaning "on top of" or "above".
SUPRACONDYLAR: Above a condyle.
SUPRAHEPATIC: Located either on the surface or above the liver.
SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY: Often mistaken for Parkinson's disease since symptoms are similar which include the distinguishing feature of loss of eye movement. At first the downward gaze and then the upward gaze.
SUPRAPATELLAR POUCH: A surgical term ... just above the knee.
SUPRASELLAR: A term that refers to a position which is above or over the sella turcica.
SUPRASPINATUS: One of the shoulder muscles. Supraspinous muscle; scapula ... commences abduction of the arm.
SURA: Another word for "calf" (of the leg).
SURAL: Referring to the calf of the leg.
SURDITAS: Another word for "deaf".
SURGEON: A medical professional who specializes in surgery.
SURGITOME: Surgical instrument / aid.
SUSCEPTIBLE: One who is in a likely situation to become infected.
SUSPIRATION: Another word for "sigh".
SUSTAINED RESPONSE: A lasting cure (minimum six months) resulting from a treatment.
SUSURRATION: Another word for "murmur".
SUTURE: To sew together.
SVT: Abbreviation for "Supraventricular tachycardia".
SWAGED ON: Referring to prepackaged needles with suture pre attached.
SWATHE: A method of bandaging to immobilize a body area.
SWEET'S DISEASE: This skin disease commences (begins) with skin areas that have a burning sensation due to white blood cells invading the skin. The cause is unknown in the year 2000 but often responds quickly to cortisone drugs.
SYM-: A prefix (word part) meaning "combined".
SYMBIOSIS: A relationship that exists between two animals which benefits both.
SYMMETRY: Balance of identical body parts located on either side of the body.
SYMPATHECTOMY: Removal of a portion of the sympathetic nerve or sympathetic ganglia.
SYMPATHETIC: Refers to the sympathetic nervous system which reacts automatically and independently of our will and emotions. This "system" of nerves controls the flow of blood to tissues and organs by increasing and decreasing the openings of blood vessels.
SYMPATHIC: Referring to the sympathetic part of the autonomic system.
SYMPHYSIS: A joining point ... immovable joint.
SYMPHYSIS PUBIS: The pubic bone located just above the genitals.
SYMPTOM(S): Body alterations resulting from disease.
SYMPTOMATOLOGY: Study of symptoms.
SYN-: A prefix (word part) meaning "combined".
SYNAPSES: The distance between two neurons (nerve cells).
SYNCYTIAL: Relating to a syncytium.
SYNCYTIUM: A mass of protoplasm produced by the merging of cells.
SYNDROME: A group of symptoms that happen concurrently.
SYNECHIA: Any adhesion.
SYNERGISTS: Medications which work in combination with each other to provide effects which are greater than either medication alone.
SYNERGY: Another word for "cooperation".
SYNOVITIS: Inflammation of synovial membrane (joint lining) ... also, arthritis.
SYNTAXIS: The junction where two bones meet.
SYNTHESIS: Making a new compound by adding together two simpler ones.
SYPHILIS: Infectious disease spread by sexual contact. It is caused by the microorganism Treponema pallidum. It is a serious disease that can cause destruction of tissue and inflammation in virtually any organ. Symptoms are varied due to the multiple organs that may be targeted. Treatment involves the use of antibiotics ... early detection and treatment results in a complete cure. However, cases that have been allowed to cause tissue damage to organs cannot be reversed. The spirochetes can be destroyed and damage halted but the organ damage is permanent. The disease usually starts as a painless ulcer on genitals and heals without medical treatment. A body rash appears in approximately two months combined with joint pain and high body temperature. It left untreated it will reappear later in life to affect the brain, spinal column, aorta (largest artery of the body) and heart. A male does not pass the disease to his offspring unless he infects the mother while pregnant (or just prior to).
SYRINGE: A device used in the medical industry for injecting fluids into the body. It consists of a cylinder, plunger and needle.
SYRINGOMYELOCELE: A condition in which a part of the spinal column sticks out through a hole in it (see spina bifida).
SYSTEMIC: Relating to the whole body rather than a single area of the body.
SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS: Disease that affects many parts of the body. Severity can range from mild to severe. Usually the first symptom looks like arthritis of the fingers and other joints ... it can appear suddenly and with intense fever. Scaling lesions appear on parts of the body with a red rash on the cheeks. The lungs and kidneys often are involved. About 50% of sufferers develop inflammation of the kidneys. Severe cases can involve the heart, lungs, spleen or brain.
SYSTOLE: A tightening (contraction) of the heart that drives blood into the aorta and lung arteries,
SYSTOLIC: One of the two numbers involved in blood pressure readings. It is an indication as to the maximum pressure that the blood attains when the heart is pumping blood ... it is the first of the two numbers ... i.e., 124/80.

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