THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY


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F F F

F.: Abbreviation for "Fahrenheit". Also "Fahr."
FACIOPLEGIA: Paralysis of the face.
FACTITIOUS: Un-natural, self-induced.
FACTOR I: Another term for ... "fibrinogen".
FACTOR II: Another term for ... "prothrombin".
FACTOR III: Another term for ... "thromboplastin".
FACTOR IV: Another term for ... "calcium" which is present when blood coagulates.
FACTOR V: A procoagulant in blood plasma.
FACTOR VI: A substance that has not yet been discovered but thought to be a product from factor V at the time of coagulation.
FACTOR VII: A procoagulant in normal blood plasma.
FACTOR VIII: A blood clotting factor.
FACTOR IX: A procoagulant in normal blood plasma.
FACTOR X: A procoagulant in normal blood plasma.
FACTOR XI: A procoagulant in normal blood plasma.
FAHRENHEIT: A method of measuring temperature used primarily in the United States. A typical body temperature is 98.6 degrees F. (Celsius = 37 degrees). Conversion formula for Fahrenheit to Celsius is: C=(F-32) x 5/9.
FAILURE TO THRIVE: A situation in which a baby does not develop in a normal manner.
FAINTING: A loss of consciousness. When it is caused by blood pooling in the legs it is called "vasovagal syncope" and not a sign of serious problems. However, erratic heartbeats, brain seizures and decreased blood flow to the brain can indicate a more sinister condition.
FALCIFORM LIGAMENT: A fold in the thin membrane (peritoneum) that covers most of the abdominal organs. This fold is connected to the diaphragm and sheath of the rectus muscle and liver.
FALLOPIAN TUBES: Also called "uterine tubes" ... they connect the womb with the ovaries.
FALSE LABOR: Contractions which can occur days before the birth of a baby.
FALSE RIBS: The five lowest pairs of ribs which are not attached to the sternum.
FAMILIAL: The term is normally used to mean "inherited" this is incorrect usage. The correct definition is "affecting several members of the same family".
FAMILIAL ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS: Disease in which hundreds and as much as thousands of polyps grow in the colon or the rectum during childhood and ultimately become cancerous.
FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS: Rare disease which results in polyps growing in the colon which have a high risk of developing into cancer. Note: This is an inherited disease.
FAMILIAL TREMOR: Also called ... "essential tremor". Tremors that typically occur in the hands. It gets worse when sufferer raises a cup of tea to the lips or holds a newspaper outstretched. Stressors like anger, fatigue, fear, caffeine, nicotine and emotions tend to make it worse. Treatment is often the seizure-control medication called Primidone. Also, propranolol has been effectively used. In cases where medications are not effective ... an electronic device can be hooked up to the brain that nullifies errant brain signals that cause the tremors. The International Tremor Foundation is located at 7046 W. 105th St, Overland Park, Kansas 66212 (www.essentialtremor.org).
FANCONIA ANEMIA: A rare genetic disorder which results in cancers of vital organs and failure of bone marrow.
FAP: Abbreviation for "familial adenomatous polyposis".
FAR POINT: The most distant point that the relaxed eye can see.
FARSIGHTEDNESS: Being unable to see clearly at close distances.
FASTIGIUM: The highest position.
FASCI / O: A combining word-form which means "fibrous tissue".
FASCIA: Connective-fibrous tissue.
FASCIA LATA: The deep fascia of the thigh.
FASCICLES: Electrical cables in the heart which conduct electricity from the heart's pacemaker to the pumping ventricles.
FASCICULAR BLOCK: An interruption in the bundles of the heart which conduct electricity from the heart's pacemaker to the chambers which pump blood. These blocks are common and do not constitute a medical emergency. Sometimes a block can be an indication of another problem like a diminished blood flow to the bundles.
FASCICULATED: Combined into bundles.
FASCICULATION: Involuntary contractions or switches.
FASCICULITIS: Muscle or nerve fiber inflammation.
FASCICULUS: A bundle of fibers.
FASCIITIS: Inflammation of connective-fibrous tissue (fascia).
FASCIOLA HEPATICA: Liver fluke of many animals and occasionally seen in the human liver ... can cause obstruction of biliary ducts.
FAT PAD: An accumulation of adipose tissue (fat cells) enclosed in fibrous tissue.
FALX: A fold of dura mater located in the brain which projects toward a structure of the cerebellum.
FAT: One of the three nutrients that provide calories to the body (i.e., fats, protein, carbohydrates). Fats deliver nine calories per gram (two times the number delivered by proteins or carbohydrates).
FAT - MONOUNSATURATED: A type of fat found in plant foods (i.e. olive oil and canola). It has a reputation for reducing blood cholesterol.
FATTY LIVER: Yellow areas of the liver caused by fatty degeneration of the cells of the functional areas of the liver.
FATTY LIVER - ALCOHOLIC: Typically seen in alcoholics ... an enlarged liver due to large droplets of fat. People with this problem often do not exhibit symptoms, however, the condition can progress into hepatitis or cirrhosis.
FEBRIFUGE: Also called ... "antipyretic". Something that decreases or prevents a fever.
FEBRILE: Fever.
FECAL: Referring to stool.
FECES: Stool.
FECAL OCCULT BLOOD TEST: An inexpensive and painless test which can identify colon cancer. A small amount of stool is tested for blood on a special paper that changes color if blood is present. False results can be obtained by patients who are taking iron, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or laxatives.
FECULENT: Foul.
FECUNDITY: Being in a state of fertility.
FEEDING TUBE:
FELLATIO: A sexual technique in which the penis is placed in the mouth of a partner.
FELLOW: A physician who has completed post graduate education and is doing extra work in a specialized field.
Felon: An infection of abscess of the tip of the finger.
FELTY'S SYNDROME: This disease affects approximately 1% of those inflicted with rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms include and enlarged spleen and a low white blood cell count which makes them especially vulnerable to infections. One treatment is to remove the spleen and another is to use the drug Methotrexate.
FEMOR / O: A combining word-form which means "thigh bone" (femur).
FEMORAL: Referring to the thigh.
FEMORAL ARTERY: The primary blood vessel that supplies blood to the leg.
FEMORAL NECK: The neck of the thighbone.
FEMORAL HEAD: The upper end of the thighbone.
FEMOROILIAC: Refers to the thigh bone (femur) and the hip bone (ilium).
FEMSOFT INSERT: A device used to treat female incontinence. It is a fluid filled sleeve which is inserted in the urethra ... designed to conform to the anatomy of the patient.
FEMUR: The thighbone. No other bone in the body is as long or as strong as the femur. It extends from the hip to the knee.
FENESTRA: An opening in a brace or dressing designed to allow access to an injury.
FENESTRATED: Having openings which resemble windows ... i.e., fenestrated knee brace.
FENESTRATION: A surgical procedure to correct some types of hearing loss.
FERMENTATION: The degeneration of complex substances to simpler ones via enzyme action. Typically, a bacterium breaks down substances to produce alcohols, acids and gasses. In the intestines, resident bacteria breakdown food substances and releases hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
FERRITIN: A chemical complex composed of protein and iron ... found in the spleen, bone marrow, mucosa of the intestines, reticulocytes, and liver ... regulates the storage of iron.
FERRULE: A piece of metal placed over a tooth for the purpose of strengthening it.
FESTER: The making of pus.
FETAL: Referring to a fetus.
FETICIDE: The killing of an unborn infant.
FETID: Foul smelling.
FETOPROTEINS: Fetal proteins which can be an indication of disease when found in adults.
FETOR HEPATICUS: A characteristic breath odor which is indicative of liver failure.
FETUS: A term given to an unborn child after the third month of gestation.
FEV: Abbreviation for ... "forced expiratory volume".
FEVER: A body temperature which rises above 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit.
FIBRE: Dietary fibre promotes bowel regularity, helps to lower blood cholesterol levels and regulate blood sugars in those people who have diabetes. This important substance is found in many vegetables and fruits as well as whole grain products.
FIBRILLATION: 1. Muscle fiber twitching which does not affect the entire muscle but rather individual fibers. 2. Rapid contracting or twitching that interferes with normal heart rhythms. Sometimes the condition is corrected with electric shock.
FIBRIN: The base of a blood clot produced by proteins in tissues and blood.
FIBRINOGEN: 1. A plasma protein manufactured by the liver and synthesized into fibrin (during the formation of a blood clot). 2. A tiny, soluble particle (protein) in blood that promotes clotting.
FIBROADENOMA: An innocent growth of milk glands and supporting fibrous tissue ... it is not cancer.
FIBROIDS: Fleshy, benign growths in the uterus and other areas.
FIBROMA: A benign tumor made from fiber tissue.
FIBROMYALGIA: Also called "the invisible illness". Symptoms include chronic, wide-spread muscle pain, allergies, anxiety, mental fatigue, carpal tunnel syndrome, depression, dizziness, heart palpitations, dysmenorrhea, fingernail ridges, inability to exercise, gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, irritability (to light, sound and smells), mood swings, sleep disturbances, joint swelling, skin which is tender to touch ... poor state of the immune system. Most common in women between the ages of 30 and 60.
FIBROSIS: An abnormal formation of fiber tissue. The forming of scar tissue due to damage. When it occurs in the liver it is referred to as "cirrhosis".
FIBROSITIS: A typical rheumatic condition that affects joints indirectly.
FIBROTIC: Refers to being affected with fibrosis.
FIBROVASCULAR: Referring to something that is both vascular and fibrous.
FIBUL / O: A combining word-form that means "Fibula" (one of the two lower leg bones).
FIBULA: One of the two lower leg bone.
FIBULOCALCANEAL: Referring to one of the two lower leg bones (fibula) and the heal bone (calcaneus).
FIFTH'S DISEASE: Also called "slap cheek disease" or "erythema infectiosa" or ""parvovirus B-19". A childhood disease which usually runs its course in 1-3 weeks ... it is similar to the measles and produces a runny nose and sometimes headache. During the fifth to sixth day the child's cheeks turn bright red and a rash typically covers the body. Adults have also been known to contract the disease and the symptoms may include joint pain and swelling that mirrors rheumatoid arthritis (not permanent). However, sometimes the joint pain and swelling can last for months and even years. Also, inflamed heart muscles may occur in adults but rarely in children.
FILOVIRUS: A deadly virus that resembles a thread and includes Ebola & Marburg.
FIMBRIA: A fringelike structure.
FINDER NEEDLE: Instrument typically used is surgery.
FINGERSTICK: A method of checking blood glucose levels by pricking the finger.
FISH OILS: Dietary supplements extracted from fish (especially the livers). These oils are high in vitamin A and unsaturated fats.
FISSION: Separating into sections.
FISSURE: 1. A groove or crack. 2. One of the lobes that separates the liver.
FISTULA: An abnormal passage from an epithelialized surface to another epithelialized surface. It can be an opening that connects two organs or an organ through the skin.
FISTULECTOMY: The removal of a fistula.
FITZ?HUGH?CURTIS SYNDROME:
FLACCID: Weak ... non-muscular ... soft.
FLAIL CHEST: A flapping chest wall and loss of stability of the thoracic cage ... resulting from a fracture of the ribs or sternum.
FLANK: The part of the body below the ribs and above the ilium (hip).
FLAP: Skin tissue that is semi-detached.
FLATULENCE: Abnormal amounts of gas in the digestive tract ... caused by swallowing air, fermentation in the intestines and sometimes diseases.
FLATUS: Air or gas from the intestines that is expelled from the rectum. This intestinal gas comes from bacteria feeding on undigested food.
FLAVIVIRUS: A group of viruses that cause hepatitis C, yellow fever, denge and St. Louis encephalitis.
FLAVONE: A plant pigment that is the rudiment of flavonoids.
FLAVONOID: A group of pigments seen in plants which may help to prevent cancer.
FLAXSEED: Linseed.
FLESH EATING DISEASE: Common strep bacteria causes an infection of the skin which is often life threatening. Tissues below the skin swell up ... the skin turns dark red and blisters form. This painful process causes dead tissue and advances very quickly. Antibiotics can stop the infection when caught early providing dead tissue has been removed. An amputation of body parts often is required.
FLEXION: The bending (reduction in angle) of two ones which are connected ... for example, the bending of the elbow.
FLEXOR: A muscle that bends a limb at a joint.
FLEX SIG: Abbreviation for ... "flexible sigmoid".
FLEXURE: The bent area of an organ, for example ... anorectal flexure, basicranial flexure, caudal flexure, cephalic flexure, cerebral flexure, cervical flexure, cranial flexure, dorsal flexure, duodenojejunal flexure, hepatic flexure, inferior flexure of the duodenum, left colic flexure, lumbar flexure, mesencephalic flexure, perineal flexure of the rectum, pontine flexure, right colic flexure, sacral flexure, sacral flexure of the rectum, sigmoid flexure, splenic flexure, superior flexure of the duodenum, telencephalic flexure, transverse rhombencephalic flexure.
FLOATERS: Small particles which appear in the vitreous (fluid that fills the back of the eye). If a person concentrates on them he/she will see them moving across their field of vision. It is to be noted that a sudden shower of floaters combined with flashes of bright light can be an indication of a detached retina.
FLOATING RIBS: The two lowest pairs of false ribs (not attached to the sternum).
FLOCCULENT: Something that has the appearance of wool or cotton.
FLORA: Plants.
FLORID: Bright red in color ... flowery.
FLU: See "influenza".
FLU LIKE SYMPTOMS: Fever, muscle aches, joint pains and nausea.
FLUCTUANT: Refers to the examination of a body part which contains a liquid; a wavelike motion is felt when pressing the area.
FLUKE: A parasitic worm that has a flat appearance.
FLUORESCEIN: An orange-red powder that produces a bright green fluorescein in solution.
FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TEST: A test which identifies harmful streptococci from a throat smear.
FLUORESCEIN EXAM: Referred to in an eye exam i.e. a chemical placed in the eye.
FLUOROSCOPE: A device which makes use of x-rays to observe structures within the body. The device presents real-time imaging (internal organs in motion). The word part "fluoro" refers to the fluorescence that produces the picture on a cathode ray tube (similar to a television picture tube).
FLUTTER: A term often used to describe an irregular and rapid motion of the heart.
FLUX: A massive flow of body excrement.
FNA: Abbreviation for ... "fine needle aspiration".
FNAB: Abbreviation for ... "fine needle aspiration biopsy".
FNB: Abbreviation for ... "fine needle biopsy".
FNTHC: Abbreviation for ... "fine needle transhepatic cholangiography".
FOAMY LIVER: The description of some livers following death in which there is a presence of many gas bubbles.
FOBT: Abbreviation for ... "fecal occult blood test".
FOCAL SEIZURES: A seizure in which abnormal electrical impulses can be traced to an exact area(s) of the brain.
FOCI: Plural of "focus".
FOCUS: The site of an infection.
FOLATE: Another word for "folic acid" which is a B vitamin. Normal body levels range from 2.5 to 20 nanograms/mL. Low levels lead to anemia. Low levels during pregnancy can cause birth defects to the spine. Adult requirements are 400 micrograms ... 600 for pregnant women ... 500 for a nursing mother.
FOLEY CATHETER: This is a thin, flexible tube inserted into the urethra in order to drain the bladder ... the catheter is retained in the urinary bladder by an inflated balloon; Chronic indwelling;
FOLIC ACID: One of the family of B vitamins. It sparks action from Vitamins A, D, E, and K. It can be obtained naturally from green leafy vegetables. It also affects the blood, liver and kidneys. Another word for "folate" which is a B vitamin. Normal body levels range from 2.5 to 20 nanograms/mL. Low levels lead to anemia. Low levels during pregnancy can cause birth defects to the spine. NOTE: Cooking, heat, light and acid pH lower than four destroys folic acid. SOURCES: Spinach, kale, asparagus, beats, broccoli. DOSAGE: Adult requirements are 400 micrograms ... 600 for pregnant women ... 500 for a nursing mother.
FOLIE: Psychosis.
FOLLICLE: 1. A tiny sac of the body that secretes chemicals. 2. Every egg in the ovary is housed in a "capsule" which resembles a dome-covered nest called the "follicle".
FOLLICULITIS: An inflammation that occurs due to a reaction in hair follicles resulting in small, solid elevations of the skin.
FOLSTEIN'S: Mini mental status examination.
FOMENTATION: The application of warm, moist heat to an inflamed area.
FOMES: An object that is not in itself harmful, but is able to harbor pathogenic microorganisms and therefore may serve to transmit an infection.
FONTANEL: Soft spot on an infants head.
FONTANELLE: Soft spot on an infants head.
FOOD POISONING SYMPTOMS: Food poisoning is often mistaken for the flu due to diarrhea, cramps, vomiting and nausea. Symptoms often develop 8-24 hours after ingestion.
FOOTDROP: A condition in which a person must lift the leg high off the ground when walking to prevent it from dragging on the ground. Nerve damage is a typical cause. Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, a deficient thyroid gland and a lack of vitamin B-12 can also be the cause. Sometimes braces are prescribed to keep the foot from sagging.
FORAMEN: An opening, as in a membrane or a bone.
FORAMEN MAGNUM: An opening that occurs in the base of the occipital bone that is where the spinal cord passes through from the medulla oblongata.
FORAMINA: Plural of "foramen".
FORCEPS: Surgical instrument with two prongs ... typically used for extracting.
FOREARM: Lower arm between the wrist and elbow.
FORENSIC PATHOLOGIST: An specialist who investigates suspicious deaths. Typically, the forensic pathologist works as a medical examiner or coroner.
FORNIX: An arch-shaped structure as in the vaginal fornix (fornix vaginae).
FOSSA: Hollow or pouch. Depression below the surface of a part.
FOSSA NAVICULARIS: Boat shaped, pouched area.
FOURCHETTE: The frenulum (fold of skin) which connects the two labia minora.
FOVEA ETHMOIDALIS: The top of the ethmoidal air cells.
FRACTURES: Broken bones which includes "simple" and "compound" types. Simple fractures do not involve a break in the skin with minimal displacement. Compound types are much more serious in which there is an opening in the skin due to a bone edge pushing it's way out. Types ... salter; COLLES; torus;
FRANK'S SIGN: CURRENTLY BEING RESEARCHED.
FREER ELEVATOR: A surgical instrument used to elevate tissue.
FREE RADICALS: Atoms or groups of atoms which readily combine with other compounds. They damage the body during these chemical reactions. They develop in heated fats and oils and are a result of pollutants, radiation and many other things.
FREE T4: The physiologically active form of thyroxine contained in blood serum.
FRENULUM: A fold of skin or membrane that limits the movement of a body part.
FRENUM: Mucous membrane passing from a more fixed to a moveable part, serving to stop movement of the part ... often used to refer to the tissue beneath the tongue.
FREMITUS: Trembling movement of the chest wall that can be heard or felt by an examining physician.
FRIABLE: Easily pulverized or crumbled.
FRICTION RUBS: A dry, grating sound heard with a stethoscope. It is normal when heard over the liver and spleen but may indicate problems when heard over the heart or lungs.
FRIEDREITCH'S ATAXIA: A disease that causes clumsiness of the hands and arms due to an abnormality of the nervous system. Symptoms usually commence in the 20's and gets progressively worse.
FRONS: The forehead.
FRONTAL: Term typically used to identify the forehead.
FROZEN SECTION BIOPSY: A histological exam of a biopsy for the purpose of determining appropriate treatment.
FRUCTOSE: A simple sugar.
FSH: Abbreviation for "follicle stimulating hormone".
FULGURATED: Currently being researched.
FULMINANT: Acute, severe, rapid.
FUNCTIONAL DISORDER: Intestinal tract discomfort which appears with no signs of disease.
FUNDOMUCOUS LAKE AREA: Lowest area of the stomach.
FUNDOPLICATION: Also called ... fundal plication". Suturing to the fundus of the stomach for the purpose of creating a valve that prevents the backup of stomach acid into the esophagus (to repair a hiatal hernia).
FUNDOPLICATION (TOUPET): Currently being researched.
FUNDUS: Lowest part of a hollow organ ... the area furthest away from the opening.
FUNDUS OF THE EYE: Also called the "eyeground". It is the rear of the eye as seen when looking through the pupil. An examination of this sort is performed to evaluate the blood vessels.
FUNGATING SORE: A granulating chancroid.
FUNGUS: A class of organisms which includes yeast, mushrooms and mods. Some species can cause severe diseases (like Candida albicans).
FUNNY BONE: A portion of the outer elbow which is crossed by the ulnar nerve.
FUO: Abbreviation for ... "fever of unknown origin".
FUR: A deposit on the tongue.
FURFUR: Dandruff.
FURUNCLE: A pyogenic infection which originates in a hair follicle.
FURUNCULOSIS: A condition characterized by infections that begin in hair follicles (furuncles), often chronic and recurrent.
FUSIFORM: Spindle-shaped.
FUSION PROTEIN: Proteins that exist on the surface of a virus and is the mechanism by which the virus envelope fuses with the cell membranes.
FVC: Abbreviation for ... "forced vital capacity.

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