THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY
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G6PD DEFICIENCY: Glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase insufficiency that is associated with red blood cell destruction ... typically seen in people who live in the Mediterranean region.
G+: Abbreviation which means ... "gram positive".
G-: Abbreviation which means ... "gram negative".
GA: Abbreviation for ... "gastric antrum" (nearly closed body cavity).
GALACTIC: Refers to "milk".
GALEA: A structure shaped like a helmet.
GALEAZZI'S FRACTURE: Forearm bone fracture (radius) combined with dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint.
GALL: A chemical secretion typically stored in the liver used to break down fats.
GALL BLADDER: A pear shaped sac beneath the liver where bile is stored. The major problem that occurs is the development of gallstones that may result in severe pain of the abdomen. Gall bladder disease strikes women much more than men probably due to the female hormone estrogen that increases cholesterol levels in bile (gallstones are typically composed of cholesterol).
GALL BLADDER ATTACK: Stones produced in the gall bladder that results in severe pain for 30 minutes or more which is located in the abdomen (upper right and below the ribs). Also, nausea, vomiting and pain radiating to the shoulder blades and back are common symptoms.
GALLBLADDER DISEASE: A situation of having a gallstone in the gallbladder or obstructing on of the ducts connected to it.
GALL STONES: Hard, stoney, calcium objects which develop in the gall bladder and associated drainage system. Severe pain in the upper right area of the abdomen is typically experienced when the stone moves. Sometimes the pain radiates to both sides, the back and even up into the right shoulder. The pain can be so intense that it causes severe distress to the sufferer.
GAMA GLOBULIN: Antibodies that protect nerves from destructive antibodies.
GAMMA GLUTAMYL: Also called ... "GGT". A liver enzyme. Increased amounts are associated with wounds that cause blockages of the liver bile ducts. High levels are associated with hepatitis, pancreatic and hepatobiliary diseases in which the common duct is blocked (normal in pregnancy). By itself it is a poor marker for liver disease due to alcohol ... but when combining it with transaminases it becomes a good indicator of alcohol abuse.
GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDASE: A liver enzyme which when elevated indicates hepatitis.
GAMETE: A reproductive sex cell ... ovum or sperm.
GEMELLI: Currently being researched.
GAMMA GLOBULIN: Blood protein that helps the body to resist disease.
GAMMOPATHY: A disturbance in the manufacture of immunoglobulin.
GAMEKEEPER'S THUMB: A chronic condition of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb i.e., subluxation.
GANGLION: 1. A mass that resembles a knot. Typically in the areas near joints, tendon sheaths or between nerve fibers. 2. A grouping of nerve cells in the peripheral nervous system.
GANGRENE: Lack of blood to an area or part of the body causing deterioration (death) of that area.
GARDNERELLA VAGINITIS: Inflammation of the vagina caused by a bacterium called "Gardnerella vaginalis".
GASTR / O: A combining word-form that means "stomach".
GASTRALGIA: Pain of the stomach.
GASTRECTOMY: The removal of the stomach (or portion of the stomach).
GASTRIC: Referring to the stomach.
GASTRIC FLUID: Digestive fluids which are secreted by the glands of the stomach and consist of primarily hydrochloric acid, mucin, pepsin and rennin.
GASTRIC LAVAGE: A procedure to remove contents of the stomach.
GASTRIC MUCOSA: Protective lining of the stomach.
GASTRIC RESECTION: A procedure which removes part or all of the stomach.
GASTRIC ULCER: A sore that develops on the protective lining of the stomach.
GASTRIN: A hormone that increases stomach acid production.
GASTRITIS: Inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
GASTROCNEMIUS: Calf muscle.
GASTROCOLIC REFLEX: A mass movement of colon contents that can produce an urge to move the bowels following a meal. The strength of the urge is directly proportional to the number of calories in the meal and the quantity of fats.
GASTRODYNIA: Stomach pain.
GASTROENTERITIS: Inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
GASTROENTEROLOGIST: Physician who specializes in the gastrointestinal tract.
GASTROENTEROLOGY: A medical discipline which focuses on the liver, stomach, bowels and gallbladder.
GASTROESOPHAGEAL: Referring to the stomach and the passageway leading into the stomach.
GASTROGRAPH: An instrument which reads the motions of the stomach.
GASTROINTESTINAL SERIES: Also called ... "GI series". A series of X-ray films of the gastrointestinal tract. Typically, the patient swallows a solution of barium and the X-rays are taken as it passes through the esophagus, stomach and intestines. Hollow organs are outlined.
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Refers to the intestines and stomach.
GASTRONEMIUS: Currently being researched.
GASTROPARESIS: A slight degree of stomach paralysis i.e., the stomach does not contract due to its weak muscles. Food remains in the stomach and does not pass through. Constant nausea and frequent vomiting are typical symptoms. Diabetes is sometimes a cause because it impairs the functioning of nerves that control stomach muscles. Somehow, Erythromycin stimulates stomach muscles. Reglan and Propulsid have also been effective.
GASTRORRHAGIA: Hemorrhage of the stomach.
GASTROSCOPY: An investigation of the interior of the stomach in which a gastroscope (a straight tube or flexible fiberscope with a light on the end) is swallowed.
GASTROSIS: Any disease of the stomach.
GASTROSTENOSIS: Stomach shrinkage.
GASTROSTOMY: An opening created by a surgeon that goes through the abdominal wall.
GAUCHER'S DISEASE: Familial splenic anemia. Genetic disease occurring primarily in Jewish families. Symptoms commence in childhood (infancy). Symptoms include lethargy, bronze colored spots on the skin, retardation and ultimate paralysis.
GAUNTLET: A type of bandage for the hand.
GAUZE: Dressing; Tube; Iodoform;
GAVAGI: To supply nourishment (liquid) into the stomach via a tube from the mouth.
GC: Abbreviation for Gonorrhea culture.
GCS: Abbreviation for "Glasgow coma scale".
GENE: A functional unit of heredity that is a segment of DNA located in a specific site on a chromosome. A gene directs the formation of an enzyme or other protein.
GENE EXPRESSION: One of the stages of virus replication.
GENAPAP: Currently being researched.
GENERIC DRUG: 1. A drug named for it's chemical structure. 2. A medication that does not have a brand name.
-GENESIS: A suffix that means ... "producing" ... "origin" ... "development".
GENETIC ENGINEERING: The manipulation of the genome by the insertion of new genetic material.
GENIAL: Referring to the "chin".
GENOME: 1. The entire human genetic code ... the recipe for a human being. Considered the "book of life". Consists of three billion letters. 2. An entire set of chromosomes. Scientists from the United States, Canada, Britain, Japan, China, France and Germany worked to "map" the human genome ... the project started in the 1980's and was completed in the year 2000. The project has been "hyped" as a cure-all to eradicate disease, however, it must be noted that most diseases are the result of environment rather than a person's genetic makeup.
GENITAL: Referring to sexual organs.
GENITALIA: Referring to male or female reproductive organs.
GENTIA VIOLET: A type of dye for testing.
GENU: A structure which resembles a knee.
GENUS: A classification (biological).
GER: Abbreviation for ... "gastroesophageal reflux".
GERD: Abbreviation for ... "gastroesophageal reflux" which is the backup of digestive fluids. GERD is the medical industry's term for "heartburn". It is due to digestive fluids spurting upwards into the esophagus through a lax sphincter muscle. Prevent GERD by placing 6 inch elevating blocks at the head of the bed to allow gravity to keep the digestive juices in the stomach.
GERIATRICS: The study of aging.
GERMAN MEASLES: Also called "rubella". It is an infectious disease caused by a virus ... develops into a skin rash and fever.
GERMICIDE: That which kills germs.
GERODERMA: Skin wrinkling.
GERONTOLOGIST: A specialist who treats problems associated with aging.
GGT: Abbreviation for ... "gamma glutamyl" transpeptidase (see "GGTP")
GGTP: Abbreviation for "gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase". Same as "GGT".
GIARDIA: A parasite that can infect mammals. It can survive for long periods of time outside the body.
GIARDIASIS: A disease of the intestines caused by the Giardia parasite which is protected by an outer shell (cyst). When ingested, the cyst causes symptoms that include diarrhea, fever, anorexia, and nausea ... all of which subside following several days.
GIBBOUS: Humped back.
GI COCKTAIL: A combination of Mylanta and Donnatal to counteract indigestion.
GIGANTISM: Excessive size.
GILBERT'S SYNDROME: A benign fluke in the processing of bilirubin. The "Gilbert's liver" sometimes fails to convert the bilirubin and blood levels increase. When this happens, the skin and whites of the eyes become pale yellow. With time the color fades and harm comes from the process. Symptoms include elevated levels of unconjugated serum bilirubin typically due to an abnormal uptake of bilirubin by the liver.
GINGIVA: A area of gum which surrounds the tooth.
GINGIV / O: A combining word-form that means "gums".
GINGIVAL HYPERTROPHY: Gum enlargement.
GINGIVITIS: Inflammation of the gums (surrounding the teeth). It is the mildest form of gum disease and begins with the accumulation of plaque (a form of dental rust).
GINGIVOLABIAL: Refers to the lips and gums.
GI SERIES: Also called ... "gastrointestinal series". A series of X-ray films of the gastrointestinal tract. Typically, the patient swallows a solution of barium and the X-rays are taken as it passes through the esophagus, stomach and intestines. Hollow organs are outlined.
GLABELLA: The area that exists between the eyebrows.
GLADIOLUS: The primary area of the sternum.
GLAND: A group of cells that form together to make an organ that secretes substances into the body. There are three types ... lymph glands (located throughout the body trap germs) ... endocrine glands (ductless) ... large glands (liver & pancreas).
GLANS: A term that refers to the tip of the clitoris or penis.
GLARDIA LAMBLIA: An amoeba like creature that causes diarrhea, weight loss, stomach cramps and bloating. People become infected upon drinking crystal clear water from streams. Flagyl is an effective treatment. (Boil water before drinking).
GLASGOW COMA SCALE: A system for describing the degree of loss of consciousness. The system involves 3 responses, 1. Eye-opening. 2. Verbal response. 3. Muscle response.
GLAUCOMA: An eye disease which causes defects in vision due to atrophy of the optic nerve. The condition is caused by high pressure of the fluids in the eyeball affecting the retina and optic nerve with visual loss or blindness as a result. The increased pressure causes strangulation of the optic nerve fibers and blood vessels that nourishes it. The disease is more common in women than men and usually strikes people over 40. Those at highest risk are black people, people with diabetes, high blood pressure, severe nearsightedness and those taking corticosteroid drugs. Typically the cause is a blockage of normal eye drainage.
GLEASON'S TUMOR GRADE: A classification of cancer of the prostate gland ... scale of one to five.
GLEE SUCTION: Surgical term ... currently being researched.
GLEET: 1. A urethral discharge noted in chronic gonorrhea patients. 2. Inflammation resulting from mucus discharge at the site of a wound or orifice.
GLENOHUMERAL JOINT: Relating to the "glenoid" cavity and humerus.
GLENOID: A depression of scapula entering shoulder joint.
GLENOID CAVITY: Refers to the socket of the scapula where it enters the shoulder joint.
GLIOBLASTOMA: Neoplasms which grow rapidly and occurs most often in the cerebrum of adults.
GLIOMA: A neoplasm (tumor) that is formed from cells that make up the brain, spinal cord, pineal gland, pituitary gland and retina. Malignant glioma is a difficult-to-treat form of cancer that is often deadly within one year. In the year 2000 there is no treatment besides surgery to remove the mass. However, in the year 2000 experiments are being performed with the polio virus that may be used to kill the brain tumors.
GLISSON'S CAPSULE: Loose, connective tissue surrounding and entering the liver with the portal vessels and covering the larger blood vessels as they travel through the liver.
GLOBULE: Small round mass.
GLOBULIN: A protein found in blood . . . some contain antibodies that fight disease.
GLOMERULAR: Refers to the Glomeruli of the kidneys.
GLOMERULAR NEPHRITIS: Inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidneys. Kidney inflammation combined with inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidneys.
GLOMERULONEPHRITIS: A kidney disease. Kidney inflammation combined with inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidneys.
GLOMERULUS: A term which commonly refers to the glomeruli of the kidney.
GLOMULUS BODY: Thermostats of the body that regulate blood flow based on temperature. They are located strategically throughout the body and are highly concentrated in the fingers.
GLOMULUS BODY TUMORS: Small bumps which are blue-red or blue-grey in color. It is an enlargement of a glomulus body. Physicians remove these tumors without problems.
GLOSS / O: A combining word-form that means "tongue".
GLOSSALGIA: Pain of the tongue.
GLOSSITIS: Tongue inflammation.
GLOSSODYNIA: Tongue pain.
GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL: Refers to the throat (pharynx) and tongue.
GLOSSAL: Pertaining to the tongue.
GLOTTIS: The area in between the vocal cords.
GLUCOCORTICOID: Also called steroids. Steroid type compound which influences intermediary metabolism like the deposit of liver glycogen ... has anti-inflammatory effects and are used for asthma, rheumatoid diseases. Long-term use can cause brittle bones.
GLUCOHEMIA: Blood containing sugar.
GLUCOKINASE: Hexokinase found in the liver ... it produces chemical reactions in the phosphorylation of glucose.
GLUCOMETER: Also called ... "dextrose". Measuring device for diabetics.
GLUCOSE: The primary source of energy for body cells i.e., a simple sugar. A normal blood glucose level is less than 140.
GLUCOSE TOLERANCE FACTOR: Compound which contains chromium which helps to regulate blood sugar by assisting chromium.
GLUCOWATCH: A wristwatch like device used to monitor blood sugar levels. It is designed to supplement but not totally replace finger-prick tests because it sometimes gives erroneous readings and does not work when the user perspires too much. The device works by sending electrical impulses through the skin and triggers an alarm if the blood sugars reach dangerous levels ... one of a diabetics major fears is that (s)he will fall into a diabetic coma during sleep due to decreasing sugar levels.
GLUTAMATE: A salt ... ester ... glutamic acid. It is a messenger chemical for nerve cells ... induces electrical impulses as they travel from neuron to neuron.
GLUTAMIC ACID: An amino acid that is involved in the manufacture of DNA, glutathione and some other amino acids ... removes ammonia from the body. Sometimes called "nature's brain food" because it increases mental functioning, improves healing of ulcers, counteracts fatigue, assists with alcoholism schizophrenia and desire for sugar.
GLUTAMINE: Amino acid which is categorized as "non-essential" and has the reputation of being a brain fuel. Used to treat alcoholism, depression (mild) and cravings for sweets. Also, used to assist in the prevention of tissue breakdown by supplying the body with nitrogen.
GLUTATHIONE: One of the primary detoxifiers of the liver. Glutathione is a peptide from the following amino acids ... glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. It is a detoxicant and antioxidant.
GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE: Class of enzymes known to have antioxidant properties which contain selenium.
GLUTEAL: Referring to the buttocks.
GLUTEN: Protein which is contained in grains such as wheat, rye and barley.
GLUTEUS: Muscles in buttocks.
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS: The largest muscle in the buttock.
GLUTEUS MINIMUS: The smallest muscle in the buttock.
GLYCATE: The product of the reaction between sugars and free amino groups of proteins.
GLYCATION: Damage caused by the glucose that forms Glycate.
GLYCEMIA: Blood which contains sugar.
GLYCEROL: Glycerols are oily fluids ... used for moistening, as an emollient (a substance which externally soothes the skin ... internally soothes irritated surfaces) lubricant and as an emulsifying agent (something which combines two liquids which do not mix ... one of the liquids becomes suspended in the other as droplets ... this is the first step in the digestion of fats).
GLYCINE: A non-essential amino acid used as a nutrient and found in gelatin and silk fibroin ... natural antacid and sweetener.
GLYCOGEN: "Muscle sugar" which breaks down to give energy required for muscle contractions. Glucose (stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen) is converted back to glucose, as the body requires energy.
GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE I: Hypoglycemia (an abnormal reduction in the level of blood sugar ... the opposite of diabetes) resulting from lack of glucose production. An enlarged liver is due to a collection of glycogen ("muscle sugar" which breaks down to give energy required for muscle contractions.) in the kidneys and liver.
GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN: Sugar content of blood.
GLYCOLYSIS: A breakdown of glucose (carbohydrates) by enzymes that results in the formation of the simpler compounds pyruvic or lactic acid. The net result of this process is to store energy in muscles in the form of "adenosine triphosphate".
GLYCOSURIA: Urine which contains sugar.
GOITER: An abnormally larger thyroid gland due to a lack of iodine. The number of cases are reduced in recent years due to the addition of iodine to table salt.
GONAD: Testes / ovaries.
GONALGIA: Knee pain.
GONOCOCCAL: Relating to "gonococcus".
GONOCOCCUS: The bacteria that causes gonorrhea.
GONORRHEA: A type of venereal disease.
GOSSAMER: Clusters of grape shaped objects in the lungs. Their function is to pass air into the blood.
GOUGE: A surgical instrument designed to cut bone.
GOUT: Inflammatory arthritis which occurs in overweight and/or those who over-indulge in rich foods and alcohol. Uric acid invades joints and crystallizes to cause pain. The initial attack is usually at base of big toe.
GRACILE: Slight ... slender.
GRADATIM: Slow and steady ... gradually.
GRAFT: Skin tissue that is commonly removed from the legs or back of the neck for transplanting to a scar area. Besides the cosmetic value, the graft area is much more pliable than scar tissue.
GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE: An ailment in which the immune system attacks the receiver of an organ transplant. It typically occurs in the case of bone marrow transplants and affects the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver. Symptoms include pain in the abdomen, loss of appetite, diarrhea, liver dysfunction and fever.
GRAINS: Unit of measurement.
-GRAM: A suffix which means ... "record".
GRAM NEGATIVE: Bacteria which does not take up gram stains for identification.
GRAM STAIN: Used in the identification of gram positive and gram-negative bacteria.
GRAM'S STAIN: A laboratory test which identifies various forms.
GRAND MAL SEIZURE: Also called a "generalized seizure". A resultant seizure that occurs in epileptics ... it often begins with an aura followed by loss of consciousness and tonic-clonic seizures. Lasts for approximately 90 seconds.
GRANULATION: The healing process of a wound.
GRANULOCYTE: One of the types of white blood cells. The types of granulocytes are ... basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils (bands and segs)
GRANULOCYTOPENIA: A reduction of white blood cells.
GRANULOMA: A small, firm, knoblike, circumscribed inflamed lesions which contain mononuclear phagocytes.
GRANULOMATOUS: Referring to ... "granuloma".
GRANULOMATOUS HEPATITIS: A liver dysfunction.
-GRAPH: A suffix which means ... "recording instrument".
-GRAPHY: A suffix which means ... "recording".
GRAVE'S DISEASE: Also called ... "poisoned goiter". An increase in the activity of the thyroid gland ... increased amount of cells of the thyroid. Symptoms include bulging eyes.
GRAVIDA: a combining form meaning 'pregnant woman' with (specified) quantity of pregnancies. Pregnant, "gravida II" means pregnant twice.
GRAVIDARUM HYPEREMESIS: Vomiting which occurs during pregnancy.
GRAY MATTER: A term used to mean ... the brain. The word arises from the fact that the brain mostly consists of gray nerve tissues.
GRAYSON SCALE: The medical criteria for assessing near-death experiences.
GRIPING: A feeling in the bowels of a clutching and grasping pain.
GROIN: The crease (depression) which is where the thigh attaches to the trunk of the body.
GROSHONGTM CATHETER: A type of catheter. NOTE: GROSHONG is a trademark of C.R. Bard, Inc and its related company, BCR, Inc.
GROWTH PLATE: ... of the ankle.
GTF: Abbreviation for ... "glucose tolerance factor".
GU: Abbreviation for "genitourinary".
GUAIAC: 1. A product of the wood Guajacum officinale and G. sanctum trees ... it is used for the testing of blood in stools. 2. A reagent used to test for hidden blood (often in the stool).
GUAIAC TEST: A test in which stool is placed on a slide and exposed to resin from the Guajacum officinale tree. A chemical reaction occurs which determines if blood is, or is not present.
GUARDING: Spasms by muscles to minimize motion or agitation at sites affected by injury or disease.
GURNEY: A cot to lie down on.
GUILLAIN BARRE SYNDROME: Acute febrile polyneuritis. It is an illness that resembles polio ... paralysis of muscles. Unlike polio, muscle use is regained. Even breathing muscles are impaired and patients may be put on a device that breathes for them ... a mechanical ventilator. The disease peaks after about 2-4 weeks after which muscles begin to revert back to normal. Full recovery can take up to a year. Very few people die from the disease or have residual debility of muscles. Two treatments that have shown to be beneficial are plasmapheresis (removal of harmful blood antibodies) and gamma globulin infusion.
GULLET: The passageway leading into the stomach.
GUMBOIL: An abscess of a tooth root that results in a swelling of the mouth.
GUMS: The tissues surrounding teeth.
GUN-BARREL VISION: Also called "tunnel vision". A decrease of peripheral vision. A sufferer of gun-barrel vision views the world as though s(he) were looking at the world through a tube.
GUSTATION: The sense of taste.
GUTTATE: Resembling a drop ... used to describe some cutaneous lesions.
GUTTURAL: Referring to the throat.
GYNANDROMORPHISM: A term used to describe those with both male and female characteristics.
GYNATRESIA: A term used to describe the condition whereby there is a lack of an opening into the vagina.
GYNEC / O: A combining word-form which means "female".
GYNECOID: Looking like a female.
GYNECOLOGIST: One who specializes in ailments of the woman's body.
GYNECOLOGY: The specialized field of women's diseases.
GYNECOMASTIA: Glandular male breast enlargement that is very common for boys experiencing puberty.
GYNOPLASTY: Plastic surgery performed on female genitalia.
GYRUS: The folds of the cerebral cortex of the brain.