THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY


A | B | C | D | E | F |
G | H | I | J | K | L | M |
N | O | P | Q | R | S | T |
U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Home       Help
Copyright 1998 - JKL Company
All Rights Reserved

H H H

H: Abbreviation for ... "hour".
H & H: Abbreviation for ... "hemoglobin and hematocrit".
H. PYLORI: H. pylori is short for the bacteria ... "Helicobacter pylori". It is a bacterium that has been associated with hives and stomach ulcers.
HA: Abbreviation for ... 1. "Hepatic artery", 2. "Hepatitis A", 3. "Hyperalimentation".
HAA: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis associated antigen".
HABITUS: Posture or position of the body.
HALITOSIS: Bad breath. Can be due to gum disease (periodontal disease), poor oral hygiene (improper flossing and brushing), odor producing foods (garlic, onions, cabbage, fish, coffee, alcohol, etcetera), dry mouth, tobacco products, and some medical conditions (respiratory tract infections, chronic sinus infections, post nasal drip, diabetes, liver disorders, kidney disorders).
HALLPIKE MANEUVER: Currently being researched.
HALLUCES: Plural of hallux.
HALLUCINATION: Sensual impression which is mistaken for something else.
HALLUCINOGEN: A medication (drug) which produces unusual sensory impressions.
HALLUX: The great toe.
HAMARTHRITIS: Joint inflammation affecting all joints.
HAMARTOMA: A mass which resembles a tumor nodule and is benign.
HAMATE: Bone in the wrist. One of eight small wrist bones.
HAMBURGER DISEASE: Potentially deadly disease and is a serious threat in young children. The bacteria E. coli O157-H7 cause it. Symptoms include severe, bloody diarrhea and dehydration.
HAMMER: Bone of the middle ear.
HAMMERTOE: A condition in which the joint of the toe bends upward because the tendon of the toe is too tight.
HAMSTRING: Muscles located at the rear of the thigh.
HARE LIP: Cleft lip.
HARRIS' BAND: A deviation in the folds of the membrane which lines the abdominal wall and leads from the gallbladder to the surface of the liver and to the duodenum (first section of the small intestines).
HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS: An immunity system disease which targets the thyroid and usually forms a goiter. Lymphocytes (a type of white blood cells) attack the gland while antibodies also attack. The result if cessation of the manufacture of thyroid hormone. Symptoms include lack of energy, thinning hair, dry skin, erratic menstrual periods, a feeling of being cold and sometimes a hoarse voice. Those most at risk are women between the ages of 30-50.
HAUNCH: A term used to refer to the combination of buttock and hip.
HAUT-MAL: An epileptic seizure at it's zenith (peak).
HAV: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis A virus".
HAY FEVER: An allergic condition resulting from pollens in the air.
Hb: Abbreviation for ... "hemoglobin".
HB: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis B".
HB-Ag: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis B antigen".
HBc: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis B core" (antigen).
HBcAb: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis B Core antigen antibody".
HbCV: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis B conjugate vaccine".
HBe: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis B e surface (antigen).
HBeAb: Abbreviation for ... "antibody to the hepatitis B e antigen".
HBs: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis B surface" (antigen).
HBV: Abbreviation for ... 1. Hepatitis B vaccine, 2. Hepatitis B virus.
HCG: Human chorionic gonadotropin ... quantitative beta HCG.
HCI: Abbreviation for ... "hydrochloric acid".
Hct: Abbreviation for ... "hematocrit" (The percentage of red blood cells in the blood).
HCV: Virus, which causes Hepatitis C that generally, attacks liver cells causing cirrhosis or cancer. It was first recognized in 1975.
HCV-RNA: Remnants of the hepatitis C virus that can be detected to determine the amount of the hepatitis C virus in the body.
HD: Abbreviation for "Huntington's Disease".
HDL: Abbreviation for ... "high density lipoprotein" (good cholesterol). These protein/fat particles are involved in a recycling process that circulates through the blood and gathers cholesterol for processing at the liver. High levels are considered "good" and associated with low risk of heart disease.
HDV: Abbreviation for ... "hepatitis D virus", "human delta virus".
HEAD LICE: Once thought to inflict only the poor and unclean ... it can afflict anyone with hair. A typical over-the-counter remedy is Permethrin (Nix) ... the treatment consists of killing the live and then picking the eggs (nits) off the hair shafts by hand.
HEANEY CLAMP: Currently being researched.
HEART: The heart is an organ / muscle that acts as a pump to supply blood throughout the body. It is located between the lungs. It is divided into four chambers. A normal person's heart contracts on average 72 times per minute but varies depending on age, weight, physical activity and temperature of the body. The period of contraction is called "systole" and the rest period following is called "diastole".
HEART ATTACK: A large decrease in the amount of blood flow to heart muscle ... see "myocardial infarction".
HEART BLOCK: A heart condition in which the electrical impulse generated by contraction does not transfer from auricles to ventricles ... this causes them to lose synchronicity and beat independently of each other.
HEARTBURN: Having nothing to do with the heart, it is a condition that is best described as a "burning sensation" in the back of the throat. It is caused by reflux of stomach acids into the esophagus.
HEART CATHETERIZATION: A heart catheterization is a test for a leaky heart valve; it is threaded into the heart from a blood vessel in the arm or groin. When it arrives in the heart a dye squirts through the heart valve so it can be seen on an X-ray.
HEART DISEASE: Also called cardiovascular disease. It includes hardening of the arteries that can lead to heart attack and stroke. Warning signs include pain with activity relieved by rest, shortness of breath and activities which were previously simple becoming difficult, chest pain which might spread into the neck, arms, jaw, shoulder, throat or back, nausea, vomiting or indigestion.
HEART ENLARGEMENT (MEGALY): Exercise can cause an enlarged heart due to the fact that the heart is a muscle and will increase in mass when actively used. High blood pressure can also cause the heart to enlarge (to compensate for the difficulty in pumping adequate amounts of blood throughout the body). An enlarged heart due to exercise is beneficial. However, an enlarged heart due to high blood pressure can indicate big problems because it does not receive the rest that the exercising heart does between workout sessions. Due to overexertion the heart can give out if the high blood pressure is not controlled. Indications of a heart that is not efficient at pumping blood includes stomach upset and a lack of energy.
HEART FAILURE: A condition in which the heart is unable to provide adequate blood supply to the body.
HEART-LUNG MACHINE: A device that takes over the pumping from the heart while heart surgery is performed.
HEAVES: Vomiting and retching.
HEART MURMUR: An additional heart sound.
HEAT CRAMPS: Abdominal pain resulting from working in a high temperature and strenuous environment.
HEAT EXHAUSTION: Debilitation due to being exposed to a hot environment ... usually combined with high humidity. Symptoms include sweating, chills, nausea and vomiting. The sufferer is pale and anxious appearing with shallow breaths and rapid pulses. Note: It is rare that a person passes out.
HEATSTROKE: A condition of dizziness, seeing spots and nausea resulting from exposure to heat.
HEBERDEN'S NODES: Abnormal enlargement of cartilage or bone in the joint of a finger.
HEBETIC: Referring to "puberty".
HEDONISM: Consistently exhibiting "pleasure seeking" behavior.
HEIMLICH MANEUVER: A technique used to assist a choking person. The technique is performed by grabbing the victim from behind with one fist pressing against the abdomen while the other hand grasps the fist and pushes it in an upward direction sharply.
HELCOSIS: The development of an ulcer.
HELICES: Plural of helix.
HELICOBACTER: A bacterium that can cause ulcers of the stomach and duodenum by leaving them unprotected from stomach acids. In the year 2000 it is estimated that 60% of the population are infected with this germ ... but not all get ulcers. The reason is unknown. A treatment of antibiotics such as Biaxin will usually cure when combined with Prilosec. It is suspected of being involved in the condition known as "rosacea".
HELIOSIS: Another term for "sunstroke".
HELIX: The margin of the auricle ... the rim of cartilage forming part of the ear.
HELMINTH: A parasitic worm.
HELOMA: Another word for a "corn".
HELOTOMY: The surgical removal of a corn.
HELLP SYNDROME: A constellation of symptoms including ... 1) a rapid breakdown of red blood cells - hemolysis ("H" stands for hemolysis), 2) liver damage as evidenced by a rise in liver enzymes in the blood ("EL" stands for liver enzymes), 3) a depletion of blood clotting cells - platelets ("LP" stands for platelets).
HELMINTH: An intestinal parasite that resembles a worm ... ... acanthocephalans, cestodes, nematodes, and trematodes.
HELPER T-CELLS: Immunity system cells of which there are two types ... 1) Th-1 and Th-2. Suppressed Th-1 cells have been linked with cancers, hepatitis C, herpes, HIV and tuberculosis. 2) Overactivity of Th-2 cells have been linked to allergies, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, MS and other autoimmune disorders.
HEMAGOGUE: A chemical which stimulates the flow of blood.
HEMANGIECTASIS: Blood vessel enlarging.
HEMARTHROSIS: Collecting of blood in the synovial cavity of a joint.
HEMATEMESIS: Vomiting of blood. Gastrointestinal bleeding.
HEMAT / O: A combining word-form that means "blood".
HEMATIC: A word used to refer to blood.
HEMATINIC: A medication which improves the quality of blood by stimulating the production of erythrocytes and hemoglobin.
HEMATOCHEZIA: Passage of bloody stools. Hematochezia is typically caused by a lower gastrointestinal bleed.
HEMATOCRIT: The percentage of red blood cells in the blood.
HEMATOCYSTIC: Referring to "hematocystis" (an effusion of fluid into the bladder).
HEMATOCYSTIS: The escape of fluid into the bladder.
HEMATOGENOUS: Also called ... "hemopoietic". Pertains to the manufacture of blood.
HEMATOLOGIC: Dealing with the blood.
HEMATOLOGIST: Specialist who treats disorders of the blood.
HEMATOLOGY: The specialized study of blood.
HEMATOMA: Collection of blood caused by a break in a blood vessel. It appears as a bulge or swelling filled with blood. It results from an injury that does not break the skin.
HEMATOSIS: Any disease of the blood.
HEMATOPOIETIC: Pertains to the formation of blood cells.
HEMATURIA: Urine containing blood.
HEME: The colored part of the hemoglobin molecule that contains iron.
HEMEPROTEINS: Proteins that contains heme (the colored part of the hemoglobin molecule that contains iron).
HEMERAPLPIA: Day vision deficiency.
HEMI-: A prefix (word part) meaning "half.
HEMIANOPSIA: Visual impairment involving half of the visual field of the eyes.
HEMIANOSMIA: A condition in which the sense of smell is lost on one side.
HEMIBLOCK: Arrest of the impulse in one of the two main divisions of the left branch of the bundle of HIS (heart).
HEMIC: Referring to blood.
HEMICRANIA: A migraine headache which develops only on one side of the head.
HEMIGLOSSITIS: A partial inflammation of half the tongue.
HEMIHYPERTROPHY: Overgrowth of one half of the body.
HEMIPLEGIA: Paralysis of one side of the body typically caused by damage to the opposite side of the brain since the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa. A blood clot or hemorrhage of a blood vessel in the brain is often the cause.
HEMISPHERECTOMY: The removal of one of the hemispheres of the brain.
HEMOBILIA: Blood which enters into the biliary passages.
HEMOCCULT: Trademark for a test that identifies occult blood.
HEMOCHROMATOSIS: Excessive absorbing of ingested iron into the body. An inherited illness in which the body loses the ability to regulate iron absorption ... iron collects in organs like the heart, pancreas, liver, skin and joints. Excessive amounts of iron in the liver can result in cirrhosis while excessive amounts in the heart can lead to heart failure. If the pancreas is involved then diabetes can result. If the illness is diagnosed early, before organ damage occurs, then the patient can take precautions and live a normal life. Treatment often involves the removal of blood from the body because it is the largest storehouse of iron. For more information contact The Hemochromatosis Foundation at Box 8569, Albany, NY 12208-0569.
HEMOCYTE: A blood corpuscle.
HEMODIALYSIS: A procedure in which blood is purified by passing it through a machine (artificial kidney).
HEMODYNAMICALLY: Referring to blood flow and related forces.
HEMOGLOBIN: The oxygen-carrying molecule within all red blood cells. Can be likened to a magnet in red blood cells which grabs oxygen as blood passes through the lungs and releases the oxygen to tissues which need it ... a normal reading for women is 12?16 g/dl and 13?18 for men.
HEMOGLOBIN AIc: The primary fraction of hemoglobin which has been glycosylated.
HEMOLYSIS: Breakdown of blood elements.
HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA: Anemia resulting from destruction of red blood cells ... decrease of serum haptoglobin levels.
HEMOLYZED: Breakdown of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin.
HEMOPATHY: Disease of the blood.
HEMOPERFUSION: A filtering of blood for the purpose of purification from drugs, poisons, etcetera.
HEMOPERICARDIUM: Blood collection in sac of the heart.
HEMOPEXIN: An enzyme which is involved in the coagulation of blood.
HEMOPEXIS: Blood coagulation.
HEMOPOIESIS: The manufacturing of red blood cells.
HEMOPOIETIC: Pertaining to or relating to the formation of blood cells.
HEMOPHILIA: Also called "bleeder's disease". It is a blood disease that is due to genetic causes to affect primarily males. Symptoms include an inability to properly coagulate blood.
HEMOPHILIAC: A person who suffers from hemophilia.
HEMOPTYSIS: Coughing up blood.
HEMORRHAGE: Profuse bleeding from a blood vessel.
HEMORRHAGENIC: That which causes hemorrhage.
HEMORRHOIDS: Also called "piles". Blood vessels in the vicinity of the anus are not located deep in the fleshy portion of skin. Therefore, they can be easily irritated and inflamed by pressing on them. Hemorrhoids are categorized as "internal" or "external" … a short distance into the rectum from the anal opening is a separation that results in an "upper area" and a "lower area". Internal hemorrhoids reside in the "upper area" while external ones inhabit the "lower area". Typically, the internal types do not cause a lot of pain, however, they often bleed. A treatment for internal hemorrhoids is to slip a rubber band over them which effectively strangles them and they degenerate in a couple of days. External hemorrhoids containing a clot can cause exquisite pain and extend out of the rectum. The rubber band method will work on the external type of hemorrhoids but usually the pain is too great. Relief can come in the form of … surgery … sitting in a bath a couple of times a day … various medicated creams. Note that keeping the stools soft is imperative to irritating the hemorrhoid during bowel movements.
HEMOSIDERIN: An insoluble protein which is yellow-brown in color and found in most body tissue (particularly the liver).
HEMOSIDEROSIS: Collection of hemosiderin in body tissue (typically the spleen and liver).
HEMOSTASIS: The stopping of bleeding.
HEMOSTAT: A surgical instrument which clamps together like a pair of locking pliers.
HEMOSTATIC: A substance which stops bleeding.
HEMOTHORAX: Collection of blood between the wall of the chest and lungs.
HEMOTYMPANUM: A hemorrhagic exudation into the middle ear.
HENOCK?SCHONLEIN:
HEPARIN: A substance found in the lungs and liver that extends the clotting time of blood.
HEPAT / O: A combining word-form which means "liver".
HEPATALGIA: Liver pain.
HEPATATROPHIA: Death of liver tissue.
HEPATECTOMY: The surgical removal of all or part of the liver.
HEPATIC: Referring to the liver.
HEPATIC ARTERY: An artery that branches from the celiac (abdominal) artery to deliver blood to the liver.
HEPATIC CALCULI: Stones which develop in the liver or extrahepatic bilary tract.
HEPATIC COMA: A coma sometimes seen in people with liver disease.
HEPATIC DUCT: It is responsible for directing bile away from the liver and combines with the "cystic duct" to make the "common bile duct".
HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY: An altering of consciousness, change in behavior and personality changes due to advanced liver disease.
HEPATIC FLEXURE: Also called the "right colic flexure". It is an area (bend) that occurs where the transverse and ascending parts of the colon meet.
HEPATICODUODENOSTOMY: An surgical attachment of the hepatic duct to the first section of the small intestines measuring approximately 10 inches in length (duodenum).
HEPATICOGASTROSTOMY: A surgical attachment of the hepatic duct with the stomach.
HEPATICOJEJUNOSTOMY: A surgical attachment of the hepatic duct with a portion of the small intestines (the jejunum).
HEPATICOLITHOTRIPSY: The crushing of a stone in the hepatic duct.
HEPATIC PORTAL SYSTEM: A series of veins which deliver blood to the liver from the capillaries of the intestine, stomach, spleen and pancreas.
HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN: Also called ... "vana protae hepatis", "portal vein". Vein formed by the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein that splits into a branchlike pattern within the liver.
HEPATIC SIDEROSIS: The accumulation of large amounts of iron in the liver.
HEPATIC VEIN: The veins that drain the liver to one of the two large veins which empty into the heart (vena cava).
HEPATITIS: Inflammation of the liver.
HEPATITIS A: A disease caused by the enterovirus common in areas of poor hygiene. It spreads by ... contact with contaminated stools, blood or the eating of contaminated foods. Usually not fatal and bed rest for one to four weeks is typically prescribed ... during this time alcohol is not to be consumed. Note that recurrence may develop after three months. Symptoms resemble a mild case of the flu. A large amount of liver destruction may occur but is typically not common.
HEPATITIS B: A disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that can be found in all of the body fluids by those with infections. It is typically transmitted by ... blood transfusions, needles, oral fluids and sexual contact. Symptoms during the early stages may include anorexia, fever, malaise and vomiting. The incubation period it typically 90 days but may be as little as 40 or as great as 180.
HEPATITIS C: A liver infection spread by direct exposure to infected blood. Caused by the HCV virus that often hides (20-40 years) undetected for years. Later, in a small number of people it awakens and attacks liver cells to cause cirrhosis or cancer. Caused by blood transfusions, intravenous drug use, questionable sexual habits, body piercing and tattooing with unsterile needles. It is very contagious. Only current treatment is interferon that interferes with the virus duplication. Approximately 80% of infected persons remain infected for life. Treatment is recommended (year 2000) for those whose blood tests reveal liver damage and those who have detectible hepatitis C gene material in the blood. In the year 2000 the current treatment of interferon and ribavirin has eliminated the virus in some people (but not all).
HEPATITIS D: Also called ... "delta agent". A single stranded, RNA virus that depends on the hepatitis B virus for reproduction. It is often seen in chronic liver disease.
HEPATITIS E: A severe but short lived course of hepatitis that is caused by a unique virus different from hepatitis A, B and C. The disease is typically found in warm weather regions and linked to fecally contaminated water.
HEPATITIS, LUPOID: A severe but short-lived course of hepatitis linked to lupus erythematosus.
HEPATITIS, PELIOSIS: A condition of the liver in which many, tiny, blood-filled cysts occur throughout it.
HEPATOGENIC: That which is manufactured by the liver.
HEPATOJUGULAR REFLEX: A swelling of the jugular vein which indicates right heart insufficiency. The swelling is caused by pressure over the liver.
HEPATOLOGIST: A physician who specializes in ailments of the liver.
HEPATOMA: Tumor of the liver.
HEPATOMEGALY: Increase in the size of the liver.
HEPATORENAL: Relating to the kidney and liver.
HEPATOSPLENOMEGALY: Liver/spleen enlargement.
HEP-LOCK: An IV flush solution for catheter patency.
HEP?WELL: IV flush solution for catheter patency.
HERMAPHRODITE: Having a combination of male and female sexual characteristics.
HERMETIC: Tightly sealed ... airtight.
HERNIA: A rupture of a wall that surrounds an organ or part of an organ (allowing it to protrude through the opening). Commonly the term refers to a bulge in an internal structure through a weak point in the abdominal wall. This weak point typically existed since birth. No matter where the hernia is located, is abdominal lining which bulges through a gap in the wall of the abdomen ... in many cases the intestines also work their way through the gap. Surgery is the method to correct by closing the gap and repositioning the internal structures. Mesh repairs are a modern method that provides a better long-term solution that sutures alone.
HERNIATED DISC: Also referred to as ... "ruptured disc" ... "ruptured invertebral disc" ... "slipped disc" ... "herniated invertebral disc" ... "herniated nucleus pulposes". It is a breach in the cartilage that encompasses a spinal disc. Fluids leak out and are no longer available to cushion the back bones thus causing pain and damage to nerve roots. Typically occurs in the low back region and associated with intense trauma or strain. Symptoms may include pain of the lower back with pain radiating down one leg ... pain in the neck radiating down one arm. The pain increases with activity, laughing, coughing or strained bowl movements. Muscle weakness and/or numbness can result depending on which spinal nerve is involved. The most common complications are bowel and bladder dysfunctions. Treatments include surgery (laminectomy) ... medications (muscle relaxants and analgesics) ... natural methods. The natural method makes use of hot and cold compresses to control pain and exercise to shore up abdominal and back muscles. Back braces and traction is often prescribed. Finally, education in relaxation and proper posture to rejuvenate.
HERNIORRHAPHY: The suturing of a hernia.
HERPANGINA: Disease caused by Coxsackie virus which causes 1?2 mm lesions combined with fever, pharyngitis, loss of appetite and sometimes abdominal pain and vomiting.
HERPES: A family of viruses that physically resemble each other. Each type is identified by a number. For example, herpes 1 causes cold sores while herpes 2 produces genital infections. Herpes 6 commonly infects children between the ages of six months to 2-years to cause "exanthem subitum" (roseola). A fever results for 3-5 days ... then, rhe skin breaks out in a red rash (small blisters) and the child begins to feel more energetic.
HERPES 1: The virus which is responsible for cold sores.
HERPES 2: The virus which is responsible for genital infections.
HERPES 6: The virus which is responsible for roseola.
HERPES SIMPLEX: Fever / mouth blisters.
HERPES SIMPLEX TYPE II: Also called "genital herpes". A sexually transmitted viral disease.
HERPES VIRUS 8: A form of the herpes virus that causes an AIDS-related skin called Kaposi's sarcoma. In the United States, the cancer occurs almost exclusively in people with AIDS.... cancer appears to spread through kissing because of the high concentrations found in saliva.
HERPES ZOSTER: Also called "shingles". An inflammatory skin disease.
HESSELBACH'S TRIANGLE:
HEXOSAMINIDASE: An enzyme which assists in the breakdown of fats.
hGH: Abbreviation for ... "human growth hormone". It is the hormone that allows the body to reach its normal size as dictated by the genetic code. Studies have shown that taking synthetic growth hormone will increase the size of muscles, however, strength is not increased.
HIATAL: Referring to a "hiatus".
HIATAL HERNIA: A portion of the stomach breaking through the diaphragm and into the chest cavity to cause heartburn. This condition is not always bad news ... only when it causes stomach acid to backup into the esophagus. Hiatal hernias can be corrected through a surgical repair that may involve the insertion of a scope through a tiny incision (laparoscopic surgery). This surgery is called "fundal plication" and involves folding the stomach around the esophagus to make a valve that prevents stomach acid from backing up into the esophagus.
HIATUS: An opening.
HIATUS HERNIA: A portion of the stomach breaking through the diaphragm and into the chest cavity. This condition is not always bad news ... only when it causes stomach acid to backup into the esophagus. Hiatal hernias can be corrected through a surgical repair that may involve the insertion of a scope through a tiny incision (laparoscopic surgery). This surgery is called "fundal plication" and involves folding the stomach around the esophagus to make a valve that prevents stomach acid from backing up into the esophagus.
HIB: Abbreviation for "Hemophilus Influenza Type B" vaccine.
HIDA SCAN: Abbreviation for ... "hepato-iminodiacetic acid".
HIDRADENITIS: Inflammation of sweat glands. These glands are found under the arms, under the breast, in the groin, genital and rectal regions. Antibiotics help (Accutane).
HIDRADENITIS SUPPURATIVA: An inflammation that occurs due to a reaction in the sweat glands of the genital areas, beasts, and anal area ... abscesses and scarring are typical.
HIDROSIS: Sweating.
HILAR PROMINENCE: See Hilum.
HILUM: The part of an organ where nerves and vessels enter and leave.
HIPPOCAMPUS: An area of the brain which resembles the shape of a sea horse. It is thought to facilitate memory storage.
HIPPOCRATES: An ancient Greek physician considered the "father of medicine".
HIRSUTISM: Excessive body hair.
HIST / O: A combining word-form which means "tissue".
vHISTAMINE: A substance produced by the immune system that dilates small blood vessels, constricts bronchial tube muscles and increases the secretion of stomach acids. It is released in response to allergens and causes itching.
HISTIOLOGIC: Pertaining to "histology".
HISTOLOGY: The microscopic study and identification of body cells and tissues.
HISTOLYSIS: A term which means "destroying of tissue".
HISTRIONIC PERSONALITY: The personality of an immature, self centered, dependent and typically vain person (often a child) who is excitable and overactive. This behavior is a ploy to gain attention.
HITCH: A knot.
HIV: Human immuno deficiency virus which causes AIDS.
HIVES: Skin rash ... wheals. Typical foods, which triggers the itching, and rash include: nuts, milk, eggs, chocolate, citrus fruits, tomatoes, fish and shellfish. Also, occult (hidden) illnesses can result in hives ... for example: rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, defective thyroid, etcetera.
HJR: Abbreviation for "hepatojugular Reflux".
HMG: Abbreviation for "human menopausal gonadotropin".
HMG CoA REDUCTASE INHIBITORS: Medications which interfere with the body's manufacture of cholesterol ... typically used for hyperlipidemia. Examples are: Lovastatin and pravastatin.
HOBNAIL LIVER: The tightening of scar tissue that causes it to become shorter and thicker of the liver to result in a nodular appearance of the surface of the liver.
HODGKIN'S DISEASE: Malignant lymphoma (cancer of the lymph nodes) which results in an enlarged lymph node(s), spleen. Also, anemia, weight loss, fever, night sweats.
HOFFMAN'S SIGN: Digital reflex where nipping the fingernail of the index, middle or ring finger produces reactions in the hand.
HOHMANN RETRACTOR: A type of surgical instrument that is designed to hold back the edges of tissues to exposed organs or other internal body structures.
HOLARTHRITIS: Inflammation of joints (all).
HOLDING AREA: A waiting place ... typically prior to an operation.
HOLOSYSTOLIC: Also called ... "pansystolic". Occurring throughout the first and second heart sounds. Refers to the entire systole (a tightening-contraction of the heart which drives blood into the aorta and lung arteries).
HOLTER MONITOR: A method of recording long term EKG. signals on magnetic tape and replaying it at a faster speed to identify changes.
HOMANS SIGN: Pain to the calf that occurs with bending the foot back indicating blood clots.
HOMEOPATHY: A technique for treating a disease which involves presenting a substance which causes similar (but lesser) symptoms.
HOMOCYSTEINE: A byproduct manufactured by the body. The substance is considered a primary cause of clogged arteries. Levels can be lowered by taking B-6, B-12 and folic acid.
HOMOGENOUS: Blended together.
HOMOLOGOUS: Having the same relative position or value.
HOOK: A curved device for holding something in place.
HOOKWORM'S DISEASE: Tiny worms which infect the body and are carried to the heart and lungs by the blood supply. They dig their way into bronchial tubes and get coughed up only to be swallowed where they end up in the stomach and intestines.
HORDEOLUM: Inflammation of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid (also called a stye).
HORMONE: Hormones are chemicals delivered the blood by glands or tissues. They are essential substance manufactured by the endocrine glands for the purpose of regulating numerous body functions ... immunity ... sexual desire ... etcetera. - Transported via blood.
HOSPICE: An institution that provides service to dying people and their families.
HOT FLASHES: A symptom of menopause which involves a sudden rise in temperature which causes women to feel dizzy, hot and sweaty. In the year 2000 hot flashes are typically treated by hormone therapy.
HOUSEMAID'S KNEE: A painful situation that is caused by inflammation of the prepatellar bursa.
HOUSE PHYSICIAN: A doctor who lives at a hospital and is available for work at all times.
HOWELL-JOLY BODIES: Granules found in erythrocytes ... usually found following a splenectomy or hemolytic anemia.
HPV: Abbreviation for "Human papillomavirus". It is the virus that causes genital warts. More than 100 varieties have been identified. One strain called "HPV-16" is thought to cause cervical cancer in women. Usually people who are infected do not know it until they develop a genital wart (men or women) ... 8-10 weeks after initial exposure. Sex with a condom does not ensure safety due to the fact that the virus not only lives within the vagina, but also on the skin outside as well. This is an especially virulent virus in that it can live for days in dead skin. Pap smear tests miss diagnosing the virus in 40% of cases in the year 2000. Cervical cancer can show up 10-15 years after infection so that if the Pap smear fails to detect HPV on year it will probably do so in subsequent yearly tests. Genital warts can be removed but in the year 2000 there is no method of destroying the virus.
H. PYLORI: H. pylori is short for the bacteria ... "Helicobacter pylori" ... a bacterium which has been associated with hives and stomach ulcers.
HS: Abbreviation for "at bedtime".
HSM: Abbreviation for "hepatosplenomegaly".
HSV: Abbreviation for "herpes simplex virus".
HUMAN DELTA VIRUS: Also called ... "hepatitis D virus". An RNA virus that is dependent upon the Hepatitis B virus for replication. Can cause severe illness.
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE - hGC: A hormone which causes muscles to grow. It's presence in the human body peaks between the ages of 18-30 ... by the age of 50 these levels have diminished by one-third. In the year 2000 it was being hailed as a rejuvenator for aging people.
HUMECTANT: A substance which can be used for moisturizing.
HUMERUS: A bone of the arm.
HUMOR: Body fluids.
HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE: Also called "Huntington's Chorea" because of the dance-like movements that occur ("chorea" means "dance"). A genetic brain disease that first shows signs between the ages of 35 and 50. Currently (year 2000) there is no cure for the ailment that produces dementia, speech impairment, jerky movements and death approximately 20 years after onset. A genetic test is available that can allow a person to prepare for the symptoms in midlife.
HUTZEL'S: Michigan hospital.
HYALINE CASTS: Transparent objects.
HYALOSEROSITIS: Pain, swelling, heat and redness of a membrane which produces a fluid that ultimately becomes a thick, opaque, white or greyish covering. When this involves the watery membranes of visceral organs the condition is sometimes called ... icing liver, or sugar-coated spleen, or frosted heart, etcetera (depending on where it occurs).
HYBRID CAPTURE II TEST: A DNA test used to detect the HPV virus (human papillomavirus) that can cause cervical cancer.
HYDATID: A cyst which develops in tissue.
HYDATIDIFORM MOLE: Also called a "molar pregnancy. It is a placenta in which a fetus does not develop. Instead, growths that appear similar to grapes form on the surface. A "mole" is the result of fertilizing an ovum that lacks genetic material. Symptoms include vaginal bleeding, and the passing of the grapelike material. Rarely, the mole can develop into cancer.
HYDRADENITIS: Also called ... "hidradenitis", "spiradenitis". Sweat gland inflammation.
HYDRAGOGUE: A highly effective laxative.
HYDRARTHROSIS: Fluid buildup in a joint.
HYDROA: Disease of the skin which results in patches that resemble blisters.
HYDROCEPHALUS: Accumulation of fluid that thins brain tissues, dilates cerebral ventricles and causes separation of cranial bones.
HYDROCELE: A collection of serous fluid in a sacculated cavity like a scrotal sac that is collapsed.
HYDROCHLORIC ACID: A strong acid produced by the stomach for purpose of digestion.
HYDROGENATE: To mix with water.
HYDROLYSIS: A chemical process in which a substance reacts with water to be broken down into simpler components. An example would be ... starch to glucose, salt to acid, etcetera.
HYDRONEPHROSIS: Swelling of parts of the kidney by urine that is unable to pass a blockage in a ureter.
HYDROPHOBIA: Fearing water ... rabies.
HYDROPS: Accumulation of fluids in areas of the body.
HYGIENE: The study of health.
HYMEN: A membranous fold of skin at the opening of the vagina.
HYMENOPTERA: An order of insects i.e., wasps, bees, ants.
HYPACUSIA: Impaired hearing.
HYPALGESIA: Decreased pain sensitivity.
HYPER-: A prefix (word part) meaning "too much" or "over abundant".
HYPERACUSIS: Acuteness of hearing which abnormally irritates the neural sensory mechanism.
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN TREATMENT: A high-pressure treatment which delivers high levels of oxygen to the brain. The treatment is thought to reactivate parts of the brain that have been damaged by lack of oxygen in the womb or at birth. Many parents claim they see marked improvement in their children with cerebral palsy (less spacicity following treatments).
HYPERCALCEMIA: The condition of having abnormal amounts of calcium in the blood … seen in malignant neoplasms, primary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, vitamin D intoxication, milk-alkali syndrome, Paget's disease of bone (with immobilization), thyrotoxicosis, acromegaly, and diuretic phase of renal acute tubular necrosis. Hypocalcemia must be interpreted to relation to serum albumin concentration.
HYPERCALCIURIA: Excessive absorption of calcium into the blood from the intestines ... leads to an increase in the level of calcium in the urine which typically ends up forming kidney stones.
HYPERCAPNIA: Excess of carbon dioxide in the blood.
HYPERCHLOREMIA: Abnormally high chloride ions in blood.
HYPERCRINISM: Symptoms caused by an overabundance of secretions by glands.
HYPEREMESIS: Profuse vomiting.
HYPER EOSINOPHILIA: An abnormal increase in the number of eosinophilic granulocyte in the blood.
HYPEREMIA: Increased blood flow to a part of the body.
HYPERESTHESIA: Abnormal acuteness of sensitivity.
HYPERESTHETIC: Marked by abnormal acuteness of sensitivity.
HYPERGLYCEMIA: Abnormally high amount of sugar in the blood.
HYPERHIDROSIS: Abnormally excessive sweating.
HYPERKALEMIA: Too much potassium in the blood.
HYPERKERATOSIS: Hypertrophy of the corneous layer of skin.
HYPERLIPIDEMIA: Subnormal oxygenation of arterial blood, short of anoxia.
HYPERMASTIA: A condition of having abnormally large breasts ... also may be used to describe someone with more than two breasts.
HYPERMOTILITY: An increase in movement.
HYPERNATREMIA: Abnormally high plasma concentration of sodium ions.
HYPERNEPHROMA: Kidney cancer ... very few early warning signs.
HYPEROPIA: A term used for "farsightedness" which describes a condition of poor vision at close distances but good eyesight at a distance.
HYPER OSMOLAR STATE: An increase in osmotic concentration of a solution.
HYPERPARATHYROIDISM: An abnormal increase in the secretions of the parathyroid glands resulting in calcium stones, elevated blood calcium, decreased blood phosphorus, increased excretion of phosphorus and calcium.
HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA: Excessive amounts of alkaline phosphatase in a blood sample.
HYPERPLASIA: A term used to describe an increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue.
HYPERPLASTIC: Referring to hyperplasia (an increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue).
HYPERPYREXIA: Highly elevated body temperature.
HYPERTENSION: High blood pressure.
HYPERTHERMIA: Exceedingly elevated temperature.
HYPERTHYROIDISM: A situation in which the thyroid is overactive and produces increased secretions.
HYPERTHYMIA: Highly emotional.
HYPERTRICHOSIS: A condition of having excessive body hair.
HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY: A condition of the heart in which the heart muscle has increased in size with the muscle fibers irregularly aligned. The problem can restrict the amount of blood flowing out of the heart to cause fainting spells (syncope) due to abnormal beats of the heart. The abnormal heartbeats can be detected with echocardiograms. Evidence suggests that the condition runs in families.
HYPERTROPHY: An increase in the size of an organ caused by an increase in the size of the cells rather than the number of cells.
HYPERURICEMIA: Enhanced blood concentration of uric acid.
HYPESTHESIA: Diminished sensitivity to stimulation.
HYPHEMA: Pertains to the eye.
HYPN / O: A combining word-form that means, "sleep".
HYPNAGOGIC: That which causes sleep.
HYPNOGENIC: Something which induces sleep.
HYPNOSIS: A state of mind characterized by increased sensitivity to verbal stimuli.
HYPNOTIC: That which produces sleep.
HYPO-: A prefix (word part) meaning "lower than" or "deficient".
HYPOCHONDRIA: A condition of suffering from imaginary illnesses.
HYPOCHONDRIASIS: Imagining one is ill when (s)he is not.
HYPOCHROMASIA: A situation in which the patient has a decrease in the amount of blood hemoglobin.
HYPOCHROMATISM: A situation in which the patient has a decrease in the amount of blood hemoglobin.
HYPOCHROMIA: A situation in which the patient has a decrease in the amount of blood hemoglobin.
HYPOCHROSIS: A situation in which the patient has a decrease in the amount of blood hemoglobin.
HYPODERMIC: 1. Under the skin. 2. A needle used to inject medications.
HYPOESTHESIA: See "hypesthesia".
HYPOGASTRIUM: Pubic region (lower, middle abdomen).
HYPOGLOBULIA: Deficiency of red blood cells.
HYPOGLOSSAL: Beneath the tongue.
HYPOGLYCEMIA: An abnormal reduction in the level of blood sugar ... the opposite of diabetes. There are two types: 1) fasting (characterized by a low blood sugar level after a full night's sleep - eight hours without food), and 2) reactive (characterized by a low blood sugar level after eating due to an abundance of insulin released by the pancreas.
HYPOGONADISM: A decrease in the activity of the ovaries or testes.
HYPOKALEMIA: Presence of abnormally small amounts of potassium ions in the circulatory blood.
HYPOMAGNESEMIA: Below normal concentration of magnesium in the blood ... can cause convulsions.
HYPOMASTIA: Abnormally small breasts.
HYPOPHOSPHATASEMIA: A low amount of alkaline phosphatase contained in circulating blood.
HYPOPHYSIS: A gland suspended from the base of the hypothalamus.
HYPOPLASIA: Tissue that has not completely developed.
HYPOPRAXIA: Activity which is diminished.
HYPOREFLEXIA: A disorder in which reflexes are weaker than usual.
HYPOSPADIAS: A defect of the ventrum of the penis so that the urethral meatus is more proximal than it's normal glandular location.
HYPOTENSION: Subnormal arterial blood pressure, i.e., low blood pressure.
HYPOTHALAMUS: An area of the brain ... it consists of the preoptic area, optic tract, optic chiasm, etc.. It regulates aspects of body metabolism like temperature, water balance, abdominal organs, hunger ...
HYPOTHENAR EMINENCE: The fleshy mass at the medial side of the palm.
HYPOTHYROIDISM: This ailment occurs when the thyroid gland ceases to operate. Symptoms include a decrease in energy level, weight gain, dry hair and sensitivity to the cold. Sufferers are to take a thyroid hormone to prevent their body functions from halting. Synthroid and Armour are two examples.
HYPOTONIA: Diminished strength.
HYPOVOLEMIA: A decreased amount of blood in the body.
HYPOXEMIA: Subnormal oxygenation of arterial blood.
HYPOXIA: Too little oxygen to the cells.
HYPYON: Pertains to the eye.
HYSTER / O: A combining word-form which means "uterus".
HYSTERECTOMY: The surgical removal of the uterus. There are three categories of hysterectomy: 1. Subtotal (removal of the uterus only and leaving the cervix and the neck of the uterus). 2. Total (removal of the uterus and cervix). 3. Panhysterectomy (removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries and surrounding lymph nodes).
HYSTERIA: A term which traditionally refers to women. It is a nervous system disorder that results in mental temporary mental impairment, convulsions ...
HYSTEROSALPINGECTOMY: A surgical excision of the womb and fallopian tubes.
HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY: Method of viewing the uterus and oviduct following the injection of radiopaque material.

Return to top of page | Home |