THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY


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K K K

K: Symbol for ... Potassium.
K-WIRE (KIRSCHNER): Surgical wire used to hold things in place.
KAINOPHOBIA: Excessive fear of things out of the ordinary.
KAKOTROPHY: A state of poor nutrition.
KALA-AZAR: Tropical disease ... symptoms include anemia, dropsy, spleen swelling, liver swelling.
KANAVEL SIGN: i.e. of the head.
KAPOSII'S SARCOMA: An Aid's related skin cancer that may be transmitted through kissing. Kaposi's sarcoma causes purple skin blotches and can also attack the internal organs. Like many other diseases that kill people with AIDS, it usually affects those with weakened immune systems. The virus alone rarely causes sickness among people with normal disease defenses.
KARYOTYPING: Currently being researched.
KATA-: A prefix meaning ... "down".
KATABOLISM: The process of metabolism ... "breaking down".
KAWASAKI DISEASE: A disease of unknown etiology (causes) which traditionally strikes children. Symptoms include a very high temperature (104.0) ... bright red color of the tongue, mouth, palms and soles. Dead skin tissue eventually peels as though it was sunburned. Internally, arteries become inflamed to form weakened spots (aneurysms) that can break or form clots. Treatment includes the establishment of an IV infusion gamma globulin (combined with aspirin).
KCAL: Abbreviation for ... "kilocalorie".
KEGEL EXERCISES: Used to gain bladder control ... results are usually seen after one month.
KELLY CLAMP: Curved hemostat surgical instrument without teeth.
KELOID: Overgrown scar that seldom disappears and can continue to grow into large lumps that are sometimes painful, itchy or tender. Treatments that are sometimes effective include injections of cortisone into the keloid. Plastic surgery is an alternative but there is a risk that new scar tissue will develop that was worse than the original. Silicone gel sometimes works but only after a long period of treatment (six months). Freezing treatments are another method that sometimes proves to be successful.
KELOTOMY: An incision process to relief the pain of a strangulated hernia.
KEPHYR: A kind of milk (fermented).
KERAT / (O): A combining word-form that refers to the cornea of the eye.
KERATALGIA: Corneal pain of the eye.
KERATECTOMY: The removal of a portion of the cornea.
KERATITIS: Inflammation of the cornea.
KERATIN: A protein that is a major constituent of nails, hair and epidermis.
KERATOCONUS: A corneal protrusion due to thinning of the stroma (An organ's supportive tissue).
KERATOIRITIS: Iris and cornea inflammation.
KERATOMYCOSIS: Corneal fungal infection.
KERATOSIS: A skin condition that results in a thickening of the outermost layer of skin.
KERATOSIS SENILIS: A lesion that resembles a wart and is considered to be premalignant. It occurs in elderly, light skinned people on areas of the skin, which have been exposed to the sun (face and hands). A cutaneous horn sometimes develops. Squamous (scaly) cell carcinoma may result when left untreated. Synonyms are: actinic keratosis, senile keratoderma, senile keratoma, senile keratosis, keratosis senilis, senile wart, solar keratosis, verruca plana senilis, and verruca senilis.
KERLIX: A type of bandage material.
KERNIG SIGN: Neurologic test which is conducted by flexing the thigh at a right angle; total excursion of the leg is impossible; seen with meningitis.
KERNICTERUS: Extreme mental retardation caused by an incompatibility of blood types. Repeated blood transfusions prior to or just following birth can correct.
KERR SIGN: Neurologic.
KETOACIDOSIS: An abnormal increase in "acidity level" of the body due to high levels of ketones in urine and blood. This can occur from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or starvation.
KETONES: Class of organic compounds manufactured by the breakdown of fatty acids and carbohydrates in the liver. The ketones can be used as fuel by the muscles and the brain. Uncontrolled diabetes can cause ketoacidosis that is high levels of ketones in urine and blood.
Kg: Abbreviation for ... "kilogram".
KIDDIGRAM: Pelvic x-ray.
KIDNEY(S): Two small organ(s) of the body that filter out toxic substances and excess fluid. Slightly larger than the fist and shaped like a bean. The kidneys can be thought of as filters that trap toxic materials from the blood and eliminate them from the body (through the bladder and out the urethra). Many kidney diseases are thought to be caused by consuming excessive amounts of meat, fish, chicken, eggs, and coffee and alcoholic beverages. Weakened kidneys are unable to excrete the toxic materials (poisons) and they are returned to the blood stream. The body then attempts to rid itself of the poisons by excreting them through the skin, lungs, bowel, etcetera. Often prescribed for kidney problems ... more natural diet ... exercise ... walking ... exercises ... deep breathing ... less animal foods. It must be understood that positive changes do not occur over night, 2-3 months may be required to notice a change and as much as one year to enact a permanent cure.
KIDNEY CYSTS: Simple kidney cysts typically cause no problems present or future. However, other types can create major problems.
KIDNEY STONES: Calcified deposits that impede normal operations of the urinary system. A major cause is inadequate intake of water. A major problem with kidney stones is that they reappear time and again. Statistics in the year 2000 reveals that 80% of sufferers have a recurrence within five years of the first stone. The most common stones are called calcium oxalate stones … the second most common stones are made from uric acid (10% of all stones. Recommendations include drinking an abundant amount of liquids daily (ten 10-ounce glasses of fluid). Also, decrease the intake of salt (which increases calcium in the urine). The drug hydrochlorothiazide prevents calcium from entering into the blood. Calcium restriction is not suggested because it promotes the absorption and secretion of oxalate that is much more significant in the formation of stones than calcium. Foods to avoid are spinach, parsley, cocoa, rhubarb, strawberries, purple grapes, raspberries, chocolate nuts. Also, avoid grapefruit juice.
KIESSELBACH'S AREA: See "Kiesselbach triangle".
KIESSELBACH TRIANGLE: An area of the anterior part of the nasal septum.
KILLER T-CELL: Types of T-lymphocytes that are designed to attack foreign objects.
KILO-: A prefix that means 1,000.
KILO: 1,000
KILOGRAM: 1,000 grams.
KINE-: Combining word form that means "movement".
KINESI / O: A combining word-form that refers to "movement".
KINESIA: Motion sickness.
KINETIC: Referring to motion.
KINO-: Combining word form that means "movement".
KINESITHERAPY: Using various types of movement to treat ailments.
KLEBSIELLA: A type of bacteria found in the respiratory and intestinal tracts (also, water, soil and grain). Causes bronchitis, sinusitis and some forms of pneumonia.
KNEE: A leg joint that consists of a group of parts attaching the lower leg with the thigh. It is composed of three condyloid joints (rounded ends of bones), 12 ligaments (bands of tissue composed of fibrous materials), 13 bursae (sacs filled with fluid), and the kneecap (patella). The prepatellar bursa is the largest of these. Due to minimal protection, the knee is often injured by blows, sudden stops/turns resulting in torn ligaments. Symptoms of injury include fluid surrounding the knee joint, differences in shape, tenderness, discoloration (black?and?blue), and joint weakness and crackling noises. X?rays show bones, which are out of alignment, but serious injuries are due to torn ligaments that cannot be determined from x?ray. Treatments include the removal of excessive fluid, compression of the joint to control swelling, and the use of tape / splints to immobilize and allow healing. Surgery is sometimes required to repair badly torn ligaments. Torn cartilage joint cushion s sci) are also typical injuries that result in pain, swelling, and limited range of motion … surgery is an option. Note that arthritis is another condition that can affect the knee.
KNOCK-KNEE: A situation in which the legs turn inward at the knees.
KOCHER: A type of surgical instrument ... a clamp.
KOCHER CLAMP: A surgical instrument with locking handles ... often used to control bleeding.
KOCHER MANEUVER: A test for proper operation of the shoulders.
KOLP-: Prefix which means ... "vagina".
KOLPITIS: Vaginal inflammation.
KOPIOPIA: Strain of the eyes.
KUB: Kidney, ureter, and bladder.
KUPFFER CELLS: Macrophages (immunity cells which attack invading organisms like bacteria, fungus, etcetera) lining the hepatic sinusoid.
KUSSMAUL'S RESPIRATIONS: Currently being researched.
KWASHIORKOR DISEASE: Typically seen in children from Africa between the ages of one and three. The disease is characterized by anemia, swelling, enlarged belly, change of hair color (to red), loss of hair, skin depigmentation, stools consisting of undigested food, hypoalbuminemia, fatty changes in liver cells, death of acinar cells in the pancreas. The cause is due to malnutrition (especially a deficiency of protein).
K-Y JELLY: Water soluble lubricant.
KYPHOSCOLIOSIS: Kyphosis combined with scoliosis; severe, congestive heart failure is not frequently a complication.
KVO: Abbreviation for "Keep vein open" ... when giving an IV.
K-WIRE: Surgical instrument / aid to hold body parts in place.
KYLLOSIS: Club foot.
KYOGENIC: Something that causes pregnancy.
KYPHOSIS: Abnormal curvature of the spine (chest area).

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