THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY


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O O O

OARIC: Referring to the ovary.
OARITIS: Inflammation of an ovary.
O&P: Abbreviation for "Ova and Parasites".
OB: Abbreviation for "obstetrics".
OBDUCTION: Another word for "autopsy".
OBFUSCATION: State of confusion.
OB-GYN: Obstetrics and gynecology.
OBLIQUE: Slanting ... diagonal. Often used to describe an anatomical position in which the body is positioned in a slanting position sideways to the x-ray film.
OBLITERATION: To block out.
OBRATOR'S:
OBSERVER VARIATION: Incorrect information as reported by an observer, which leads to an error.
OBSTETRICIAN: One who specializes in pregnancy.
OBSTETRICS: The branch of medicine that deals with childbirth and pregnancy.
OBSTIPATION: Intractable constipation.
OBSTRUCTION: The blockage of a vessel or duct in the body which prevents flowing through the area.
OBTUND: To dull or blunt, especially to sensation or to deaden pain.
OBTURATION: The closure of an opening.
OCCIPITAL: Referring to the bone (occiput) which makes up the rear of the skull.
OCCIPUT: The rear portion of the skull.
OCCLUSAL: In dentistry it pertains to contacting surfaces.
OCCLUDE: See "occlusion".
OCCLUSION: A blockage in a canal, artery, vein, or passage of the body.
OCCIPUT: The back portion of the head.
OCCULT: Not apparent ... hidden.
OCCULT BLEEDING: Bleeding which is not apparent ... hidden from inspection.
OCCULT BLOOD TEST: A test that detects blood in stool, urine or sputum.
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY: Treatment of an ailment by performing an activity.
OCD: Abbreviation for 1) Osteochondritis dissecans. 2. Obsessive compulsive disorder.
OCG: Abbreviation for ... "oral cholecystogram".
OCL: A material splints are made from.
OCULIST: One who specializes in diseases of the eye.
OCULUS: Another word for "eye".
OD: Abbreviation (Latin) for "right eye".
ODDI DYSFUNCTION: Currently being researched.
ODONITIS: Inflammation of a tooth.
ODONTALGIA: Tooth pain.
ODONTECHTOMY: Removal of a tooth.
ODONTIC: Referring to teeth.
ODORIFEROUS: Emitting an odor.
-ODYNIA: A suffix which means ... "pain".
ODYNOPHAGIA: Pain on swallowing.
OEDIPUS COMPLEX: An abnormal love that a child has for the parent of the opposite sex.
OI: Abbreviation for ... "opportunistic infection".
-OLE: A suffix which means ... "small".
OLECRANON: Process of the elbow. Tip of the elbow.
OLFACTION: Another word for "the sense of smell".
OLFACTORY: Referring to the sense of smell.
OLFACTORY NERVE: One of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves ... it is responsible for transmitting smells from the nose into the brain.
OLIGEMIA: A decrease in blood.
OLIGOCHOLIA: A decrease in the amount of bile.
OLIGODENDROCYTES: Nervous system cells.
OLIGODENDROGLIOMA: Non-cancerous tumor usually seen in the white brain matter of adults.
OLIGOGALACTIA: A decrease in the amount of milk.
OLIGURIA: Small amount of urine production.
OLYMPUS VIDEO COLONOSCOPE: A surgical instrument used in the year 2000 to inspect the colon for abnormalities.
OM: Abbreviation for "obtuse marginal (coronary artery").
-OMA: A suffix which means ... "tumor".
OMALGIA: Nerve pain of the shoulder.
OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS: An ingredient in fish oils which is known to thin the blood and may protect against heart attacks. Also, used as an anti-inflammatory.
OMENTECTOMY: The removal of an omentum.
OMENTUM: A peritoneum fold extending from the stomach to nearby organs in the abdominal cavity.
OMITIS: Inflammation of the shoulder.
OMMAYA'S RESERVOIR: A device to remove cerebrospinal fluid or to introduce chemotherapeutic agents.
OMNI RETRACTOR SYSTEM: A type of surgical instrument which is designed to hold back the edges of tissues to exposed organs or other internal body structures.
OMODYNIA: Pain of the shoulder.
OMPHALIC: Referring to the belly button (umbilicus).
OMPHALITIS: An inflamed belly button (umbilicus).
OMPHALOS: Another word for ... belly button ... navel ... umbilicus.
ONANISM: A sex act which results in male ejaculation outside of the vagina.
ONC / (O): A combining word form that means "tumor".
ONCOGENESIS: The manufacture of tumors.
ONCOLOGIST: Refers to cancer specialists.
ONCOLOGY: The medical subfield which deals with cancer.
ONCOSIS: Many tumors.
ONCOCYTES: Cells that make up tumors.
ONCOLYTIC: Related to cancer treatment.
ONCOMA: Another word for "tumor".
ONCOTIC: Referring to swelling.
O NEGATIVE: Also called ... "universal blood donor". Blood type (Rhesus) any human can receive.
ONE TOUCH: Refers to a device used for checking blood sugar levels.
ONE TOUCH SUGAR: Accu-Chek ... measuring device to determine blood sugar levels.
ONYCHIA: Inflammation around fingernail(s) due to an infection.
ONYCHOMYCOSIS: Fungus type infection of the nails.
ONYX: Another word for nail ... for example, fingernail or toenail.
ONYXIS: Ingrown toenail or fingernail.
OO / (O): A combining word-form that means "ovum" (egg).
OOCYTE: An incompletely developed ovum (egg).
OOPHORALGIA: Pain in an ovary.
OOPHOROHYSTERECTOMY: A removal of the uterus and ovaries.
OOPHORECTOMY: The removal of an ovary by surgical means.
OOPHORITIS: Ovary inflammation.
OOPHOROMA: Tumor of the ovary (malignant).
OOPHORON: Another word for "ovary".
OPEN HEART SURGERY: A surgical procedure performed to the heart while blood is diverted through a heart /lung machine.
OPEN LABEL: A type of trial/study in which the patient takes a medication with knowledge as to what is expected from the medicine. It is the opposite of a "double blind trial" which uses placebos to take into account the effects of a patient's expectations (placebo effect).
OPERCULUM: The areas of the parietal, temporal and frontal lobes which covers the insula and borders the lateral sulcus.
OPHIDISM: Poisoning due to snakebite.
OPHTHALIC: Referring to the eye.
OPHTHALM / (O): A combining word-form that means "eye".
OPHTHALMIA: Eye inflammation.
OPHTHALMODYNIA: Eye pain.
OPHTHALMOLOGIST: A specialist in ophthalmology.
OPHTHALMOPLEGIA: Paralysis of ocular muscles.
OPHTHALMOLOGY: The branch of medicine dealing with the eye.
-OPIA: A suffix which means ... "vision".
OPTIC DISC: Blind spot on the retina.
OPISTHORCHIASIS: An infection caused by a liver fluke (Opisthorchis felineus). It typically affects the biliary tract of the liver.
OPISTHORCHIS: A family of human liver parasites (worms).
OPISTHOTONOS: Another word for ... "spasm" (spine and extremities are bent).
OPIUM: The most potent pain killer known to man. Derived from the poppy plant that grows in the Near East. Morphine, codeine and papaverine are all derivatives.
OPTIC: Referring to the "eye".
OPTICAL: Referring to vision.
OPTICIAN: One who constructs optical devices like lenses.
OPTIC NERVE: The nerve that transfers visual information from the retina into the brain.
OPV: Abbreviation for "Oral Polio Vaccine".
OR / (O): A combining word-form that means "mouth".
O.R.: Abbreviation for "operating room".
ORAL CHOLECYSTOGRAM: An x-ray of the gallbladder for the purpose of detecting gallstones.
ORAL CONTRACEPTION: A "pill" which contains hormones that prevent the ovaries from delivering eggs.
ORBICULARIS ORIS MUSCLE: Also called … "musculus orbicularis oris", "musculus sphincter oris", "orbicular muscle of the mouth" and "sphincter oris". A muscle that originates at the septum of the nose and works to close the lips.
ORBIT: The skull socket for the eye.
ORBITAL RIM: Pertaining to the eye sockets of the skull.
ORCHI / (O): A combining word-form that means "testicle".
ORCHIECTOMY: Removal of the testicles.
ORCHIODYNIA: Pain of the testes.
ORCHIOPEXY: Operation for descended testicle(s).
ORCHIS: Another word for "testicle".
ORCHITIS: Inflammation of the testes.
ORDERLY: Male attendant at a hospital.
ORDERS: Physician's instructions to the nursing staff on the care of the patient; Orders can include x-ray studies, frequency of vital signs, medications and just about anything else.
ORGANELLE: One of the parts of tissue cells which contain: centrioles, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, centrioles, microsomes, lysosomes, plasma membrane, etcetera.
ORGAN PRESERVATION: The time period and methods used to keep an organ outside the body, until it is ready for transplant.
ORGAN REJECTION: The process of the body's immunity system attempting to destroy a transplanted organ (because it is seen as a foreign object).
ORIF: Open reduction, internal fixation. Used in reference to a hip prothesis implant.
ORIFICE: An entry ... opening.
ORNITHINE: Amino acid which is categorized as "non-essential". It stimulates the making of growth hormone.
OROPHARYNX: The start of the throat commencing at the mouth.
-ORRHAPHY: A suffix which means ... "suture".
-ORRHEA: A suffix which means ... "discharge".
ORRHOLOGY: The science and study of blood serums.
ORRHORRHEA: Discharge of watery substance ... serum
ORTHO: Straight, normal.
ORTHODONTICS: The branch of dentistry that deals with uneven bites.
ORTHOGENICS: The study of hereditary factors.
ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS: A virus which causes hepatitis and is associated with liver cell cancer.
ORTHOPEDICS: The branch of medicine that deals with the skeleton, it's muscles, joints and related structures.
ORTHOPEDIST: A physician who specializes in bone / joint surgery.
ORTHOPNEA: Difficult breathing except in an upright position ... "two pillow".
ORTHOPOD: Orthopedist.
ORTHOSIS: An orthopedic appliance that control spine/limb movements ... for example, braces and splints.
ORTHOSTATIC: Caused by standing erect.
ORTHOTICS: The fitting and manufacture of orthopedic appliances.
ORTHURIA: Normal urination frequency.
ORTOLANI MANEUVER: Tests the stability of hips in babies and newborn infants.
OS: Abbreviation (Latin) for "left eye".
Os: An opening.
OSBORNE WAVES: Currently being researched.
OSCHEITIS: Scrotum inflammation.
OSCILLATING SAW: Surgical instrument / aid.
OSCITATION: A "yawn".
OSCULUM: An opening.
OSGOOD-SCHLATTER DISEASE: Necrosis of the tibial tubercle. It is a knee injury common in young adults (girls 8-10 and boys 10-15). Children have shins that are actually two bones until puberty when they fuse into one. When the new bone has formed, irritation can be caused due to the muscle and tendon contractions attached to the upper leg. The constant yanking causes a bump to form approximately 2-3 inches below the knee. Knee straps and stretching exercises are often prescribed. In a majority of the cases the disease resolves by itself after 12-24 months. The bump remains however though the pain disappears.
OSMICS: The study of smells.
-OSIS: A suffix which means ... "abnormal situation".
OSLER-WEBER-RENDU SYNDROME: Another name for "hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia". It was thus named to honor the three doctors who discovered it. See "telangiectasias".
OSMESIS: The sense of "smell".
-OSMIA: A suffix which means ... "smell".
OSMOLALITY: Concentration of a solution expressed in osmoles.
OSMOSIS: The act of liquid passing through a membrane ... from a high-pressure area to a low pressure one.
OSPHRESIS: The sense of "smell".
OSPHUS: Another word for "loin".
OSSA: Another word for "bone".
OSSEOUS: Bony or bone-like structure.
OSSICLE: Tiny bone located in the ear.
OSSIFICATION: The forming of bone.
OSSIFY: The forming of bone.
OSTECTOMY: To remove bone.
OSTE / (O): A combining word-form that means "bone".
OSTEITIS: Bone inflammation.
OSTEOARTHRITIS: The most common form of arthritis which is characterized by general wear and tear of the joint cartilage which protects the ends of bones in joints ... erodes with time to cause limited range of movement and pain. Pain often is due to bone rubbing on bone. Relief can be obtained with medications that include acetaminophen.
OSTEOBLAST: A cell which produces bone.
OSTEOCARCINOMA: Cancer of bone tissue.
OSTEOCHONDRAL LESIONS: Wound ... injury ... tumor located on cartilage/bone.
OSTEOCHONDRITIS: Cartilage and bone inflammation.
OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECANS: Separation of joint cartilage and bone ... term is typically used in reference to the knee.
OSTEOCHONDROMA: Tumor of bone / cartilage.
OSTEODYSTROPHY: Abnormal formation of bone.
OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA: Four bone diseases caused by a genetic abnormality. Symptoms of the most common type includes frequent breakage of bones. No treatment is recognized in the year 2000 except protection from situations that could cause bones to break. The parents of children with this disease are often accused of child abuse. Other symptoms include a blue tint of the whites of the eyes and hearing impairment. For more information contact the Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation at (800) 981-2663 or at www.olf.org.
OSTEOLOGY: The science of "bones".
OSTEOLYSIS: Destruction / dissolving of bone ... due to osteoclasts.
OSTEOMALACIA: Bone softening.
OSTEOMYELITIS: A disease caused by a bacterium (streptococcus or staphylococcus) which results in bone inflammation. If the inflammation is severe then removal may be required.
OSTEONECROSIS: Death of bone tissue due to an interruption of blood supply to that area. It is often associated with lupus and long term use of cortisone drugs. The most commonly affected areas are hips and joints.
OSTEOPATHY: The division of science which suggests that diseases are a result of a misaligned spine ... treatments involve manipulation of the spine.
OSTEOPENIA: A decrease in the density of bone.
OSTEOPHYTE: A bony outgrowth ... extension ... osteophyte.
OSTEOPOROSIS: A condition whereby the minerals within bones are depleted ... leaving them weak and brittle. It is the cause of people shrinking several inches in height as they get older. Evidence by archeological digs suggests that this is a modern infliction because it did not show up in the skeletons of medieval times. Modern women are often affected at the beginning of menopause. Commonly prescribed in Europe and Japan is a substance coming from soy and bee propolis called Ipriflavone. It is commonly taken (600 mg daily) with one gram of calcium QD (daily) because it can restore bone density at a rate of 1.4% to 2% after six months and 5.8% after 12 months.
OSTEOSIS: The development of bone.
OSTEOTOME: Bone cutting surgical instrument.
OSTEOTOMY: Cutting a bone.
OSTIA: Plural of Ostium.
OSTIUM: A door or opening into a tubular organ or between two body cavities.
-OSTOMY: A suffix which means ... "opening".
OT: Abbreviation for ... "occiput transverse".
OT / O: A combining word-form that means "ear".
OTALGIA: Earache.
OTC: Abbreviation for ... "over the counter".
OTIC: Pertaining to the ear.
OTITIS: Ear inflammation.
OTITIS EXTERNA: Infection of external area of the ear.
OTITIS MEDIA: Infection that affects the middle ear.
OTOLARYNGOLOGIST: A physician who specializes in ailments of the ears and larynx.
OTOLOGIST: A physician who specializes in the "ear".
OTOLOGY: Tge branch of medicine which deals with problems of the ear.
OTOP ATHY: Any disease of the ear.
OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY: Study of the ears, nose and throat.
OTORRHEA: Ear discharge.
OTOSCLEROSIS: Formation of spongy bone around the stapes of the ears which results in increasing deafness.
OTOSCOPE: An examining instrument for the ears.
OU: Abbreviation of "each eye".
OURQ: Abbreviation for ... "outer, upper, right quadrant".
OUTPATIENT: Medical treatment by a hospital without admission.
OVARIAN CANCER: Cancer of the ovaries that can be cured if detected at an early stage. However, it rarely detected early because the symptoms are typically minor ... abdominal pain similar to indigestion. There is a blood test for ovarian cancer that is notorious for giving false results called CA 125. Also, ultrasound pictures from within the vagina can reveal early ovarian cancer.
OVARIAN CYST: During the menstrual cycle a follicle sometimes "ripens" but does not burst ... it fills with fluid and becomes an ovarian cyst. Typically, the body absorbs the fluid and the cyst shrinks. Ovarian cysts can be cancerous and detected by ultrasound pictures - they appear as solid and do not decrease in size on future ultrasounds.
OVARIECTOMY: Removing and ovary via surgery.
OVARY: Small organs (approximately the size of an almond) which produce / contain about 300,000 female eggs (ova) ... around 400 reach maturation in a lifetime ... can be found at the ends of the fallopian tubes. Each month a single egg is released by one of the ovaries ... the following month the opposite ovary expels and egg.
OVER-THE-COUNTER: Medications that do not require a prescription.
OVIDUCT: The tube which connects the ovary with the uterus.
OVULATION: The time of the month when a female is capable of being impregnated. It happens during days 13 and 14 of the menstrual cycle.
OVUM: Egg ... the human reproductive cell that is manufactured in the female ovary.
OX: A combining word-form which means "oxygen".
OXALATE: A salt or ester of oxalic acid.
OXIDATION: The degeneration of physical substances due to an interaction with oxygen.
OXIMETER: A photoelectric device for determining the oxygen saturation of blood.
OXIMETRY: Often seen as "pulse oximetry ___% on room air" ... or "oxygen saturation". See Oximeter.
OXYGEUSIA: A highly refined sense of "taste".
OXYLALIA: Increased frequency of speech.
OXYOPIA: A highly refined sense of "sight".
OZ: Correctly spelled ... "oz". Abbreviation for ... "ounce".
OZENA: Illness of the nasal passages ... symptoms include a foul smelling discharge.

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