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B-12: Vitamin used by the blood and bone marrow to aid in the production of red blood cells. A substance called "intrinsic factor" is produced by the stomach to allow absorption of B-12 into the blood stream. "Pernicious anemia" is what results from a lack of "intrinsic factor". Methods of treating B-12 deficiency includes injections, oral pills and nasal gel. Oral treatments are effective only in large doses (if little or no intrinsic factor). For example, the daily requirement of B-12 is 2.4 micrograms. However, 1,000-2,000 micrograms would be required for oral dosage. The other alternative, a nasal gel called "Nascobal" is also effective.
B-COMPLEX: B-complex vitamins have a reputation as membrane stabilizers. They help with the functioning of nerves and are natural anti-stress vitamins. They are taken with food because on an empty stomach they often induce pain and nausea. When the B-complex is adequately absorbed into the body the urine will have a pungent odor and bright yellow color (due to the riboflavonoids).
B-LYMPHOCYTES: Essential components of the immunity system ... they are responsible for the production of antibodies.
BABINSKI'S REFLEX: A reflex for determining loss of brain control over lower extremities. It consists of extending the big toe upward and fanning the other toes when the sole of the foot is stroked. This reflex is normal in newborn infants; it is abnormal in children and adults and may indicate brain injury.
BABINSKI'S SIGN: See Babinski's Reflex.
BACILLEMIA: The occurrence of bacillus bacteria in the blood.
BACILLURIA: The occurrence of bacillus bacteria in the urine.
BACILLUS: Classification of bacteria.
BACITRACIN: Pronounced "bas i tration"; an antibacterial medication.
BACTERIA: A one celled, living organism which reproduces by subdividing ... they are classified for their behavior and shape. Most approximately one micron in diameter.
BACTERIUM: A one celled, living organism which reproduces by subdividing ... they are classified for their behavior and shape. Most are approximately one micron in diameter.
BACTEREMIA: A condition in which bacteria is present in the blood ... especially dangerous for people with problematic heart valves or weakened immune systems.
BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS: Infection of the heart's valves which can cause them to become leaky or narrowed. Vancomycin is typically used to destroy the invading bacteria.
BACTERIAURIA: Bacteria in the urine.
BACTERICIDE: An agent which destroys bacteria.
BACTERIOPHAGE: A type of virus which combines with virtually all groups of bacteria. Under certain conditions they may destroy bacterial cells.
BACTERIOSTATIC: An antibiotic which prevents the growth of bacteria.
BAGGING: The process of assisting a patient who has trouble breathing by using a hand-held squeeze bag (attached to a face mask).
BAG OF WATERS: The fluid that surrounds an embryo ... it acts as a shock absorber and temperature regulator.
BALANITIS: Inflammation of the clitoris or penis.
BALANUS: The tip of the clitoris or penis.
BALLOTTMENT: Maneuver in physical exam to determine the size of an organ not near the surface.
BAND CELL: A type of neutrophil found in the blood of patients with bacterial infections.
BANDS: Immature form of polymorphonuclear neutrophils.
BANTI'S DISEASE: Chronic, congestive, enlarged spleen which typically occurs in children. Often seen after hypertension in the portal or splenic veins. Anemia, thrombosis of the veins, gastrointestinal bleeding, cirrhosis of the liver and leukopenia are usually observed in various combinations.
BARBITURATES: A category of sleeping medications. Categorized as long-lasting (Phenobarbital used as an anticonvulsant for epileptic seizures), intermediate-lasting, short-lasting and ultra short-lasting (i.e. thiopental used for IV anesthesia). It is to be noted that many of these drugs have a high potential for abuse and have been known to kill when taken with alcohol. Most have been replaced with benzodiazepines.
BARD: A type of endoscope (An examining instrument used in body canals or body organs.).
BARD'S SIGN: Pertaining to nystagmus of the eye ... it is an increase of rapid eyeball movements.
BARICELLA: Skin rash.
BARIUM ENEMA: An enema which uses the metal, barium. Barium sulfate is given to the patient by way of the rectum as a method of enhancing an x-ray picture of the colon and rectum.
BARRIUM MEAL: Barium sulfate is given to the patient by way of the mouth as a method of enhancing an x-ray picture of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum.
BARRIUM SOLUTION: A diagnostic procedure in which a liquid which contains barium sulfate enhances an x-ray film outlining the organs of the body.
BARNACLES: Also called "seborrheic keratoses". They are patches of skin that vary in size from 0.33 inch to several inches. They can be black, brown or yellow and appear as though they have been glued to the skin. The surfaces can have small cracks that can give the appearance of cauliflower. They can also have a smooth appearance. They occur in families and do not result in cancer. They can be removed with liquid nitrogen or a curette.
BAROTRAUMA: A physical injury that occurs from exposure to increased environmental pressure.
BARRETT'S ESOPHAGITIS (Syndrome): Peptic ulcer in the lower esophagus. Caused by corrosive stomach acids which backup into the esophagus.
BARTHOLIN'S DUCT: The duct that is located under the tongue and drains the sublingual gland ... named for a Danish anatomist (1655-1738)
BASAL: Referring to the fundamental or basic.
BASAL GANGLIA: 1. The large, grey matter masses located at the base of the cerebral hemisphere.
BASAL METABOLIC RATE: The most decreased rate that an individual can consume energy and still remain alive.
BASELINE: That which is considered to be normal. In medicine the term is used as a number for comparison purposes.
BASILAR ARTERY INSUFFIENCY SYNDROME: A lack of blood flow through the basilar artery at the base of the skull which can cause dizziness, weakness on one side of the body, speech problems.
BASILIC VEIN: A vein located on the inner area of the upper arm.
BASKET SHARVER: Surgical instrument / aid ... currently being researched.
BASOPHIL: A microscopic element such as a cell which stains readily with basic dyes ... an irregularly shaped, granular leukocyte which releases vasoactive amines like histamine and serotonin which can be released upon proper stimulation.
BATTARISM: A condition of stuttering.
BATTERY: A grouping of similar things i.e., a battery of tests.
BATTLE'S OPERATION: For appendicitis in which the rectus muscle is temporarily retracted.
BATTLE'S SIGN: A small area of bleeding under the skin, behind the ear.
B BILE: Bile from the gallbladder.
BCEG: Abbreviation for a test which detects BUN/Creatinine.
B CELL: Also called ... "B lymphocyte". White blood cell of the pancreas and hypophysis that makes antibodies to fight infections caused by foreign proteins.
B-COMPLEX: B-complex vitamins have a reputation as membrane stabilizers. They help with the functioning of nerves and are natural anti-stress vitamins. They are taken with food because on an empty stomach they often induce pain and nausea. When the B-complex is adequately absorbed into the body the urine will have a pungent odor and bright yellow color (due to the riboflavonoids).
B-D SENSABILITY BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION AID: A plastic pad filled with a liquid designed to be placed over the female breast to improve tactile sensitivity (touch).
bDNA: A test that indicates small amounts of RNA and DNA in the bloodstream ... for example RNA fragments
bDNA ASSAY: A test that indicates the presence of minute quantities of RNA or DNA in blood ... for example, hepatitis causes fragments of RNA in the blood stream.
BED BUG: Round, flat insects that are found in temperate and tropical areas. They can be found in furniture and beds and feed on human blood.
BEHCET DISEASE: A chronic illness which features periodic flare-ups. Symptoms include headaches, stomach pain, mouth ulcers (which resemble canker sores), diarrhea and bloody stools. Sometimes blindness can result without treatment. The symptoms are a result of blood vessel inflammation. The disease is linked to areas of the world like Turkey and Iran.
BELL'S PALSY: Facial paralysis that can affect one side of the face or both. It often results in a closed eye and facial droop. It is typically due to dysfunction of the 7th cranial nerve (probably due to a viral infection or a lesion of the facial nerve).
BENIGN: Not harmful, not a threat to health.
BENIGN PAROXYSMAL POSITIONAL VERTIGO: A sensation of motion like the room spinning out of control. It is caused by calcium fragments that make their way to the inner ear fluid to send vertigo signals to the brain. Sometimes it can be cured with head movements called "epley maneuvers".
BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY: The most common prostate problem. Symptoms include inflammation, increased visits to the bathroom, reduced force and caliber of urine, burning with urination, chronic constipation, trouble starting or stopping a urine stream, painful ejaculation, infertility. More serious symptoms include constant pain or stiffness in the pelvis, hips, upper thigh or lower back, loss of weight, exhaustion, nausea/vomiting, blood in urine or semen.
BERIBERI: Disease which results from a deficiency of vitamin B.
BERNSTEIN RTEST: A procedure which identifies whether heartburn is caused by acid entering the esophagus. Typically, a tube is placed in the esophagus and an acid (similar to that found in the stomach) is dripped into it for the purpose of duplicating a patient's symptoms.
BERYLLIOSIRS: Beryllium poisoning.
BETA: 1. The second letter of the Greek alphabet. 2. The symbol for hemoglobin's b chain.
BETA 2 - AGONIST: Bronchodilator used to relax muscles in constricted airways.
BETA BLOCKER: Drugs which lowers blood pressure and decreases the risk of heart disease. A substance that blocks responses to impulses at the beta receptor site of a neurotransmitter or hormone. It lowers blood pressure by interrupting beta nerves to the heart, thus slowing it down. It has been suggested that using these medications can cause a modest increase the risk of diabetes. Examples of these drugs are Blocadren, Corgard, Inderal, Lopressore, Tenormin.
BETA-CAROTENE One of the many carotenoids found in orange and green vegetables and fruit ... it is the pigment that accounts for the orange color. It is converted to vitamin A in the body and is important in maintaining a healthy - immune system ... reproductive system ... good night vision ... healthy skin. SOURCES: Sources include carrots, squash, sweet potato, spinach, apricots, pink grapefruit and cantaloupe. Carotenoids are antioxidants that neutralize free radicals which can cause disease and aging. Beta-carotene is absorbed into the wall of the intestines where it is converted into vitamin A as the body needs it. It can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and multiple forms of cancer.
BETAMYLASE: An enzyme which breaks down starch to sugar; found in vegetables, grains, malt.
BETA SUBUNIT TEST: Currently being researched.
BEZOAR: A formation in the alimentary canal like a foodball or hairball.
BI-: A prefix (word part) meaning "two".
BIARTICULAR: Refers to two joints.
BIBASILAR: Used in one report to describe rales; bibasilar refers to the base of the skull.
BICEPS: Muscle in the upper arm.
BICUSPID: 1) Referring to a heart valve. 2) A premolar tooth.
BID: Correctly spelled ... b.i.d.. It is an abbreviation for Latin bis in die (twice a day).
BIDUOUS: Something which last for two days i.e., a fever.
BIER BLOCK ANESTHESIA: Currently being researched.
BIFASCICULAR: See "fasciculus".
BIGEMINY: The condition of occurring in pairs, especially the occurrence of two beats of the pulse in rapid succession.
BILE: Also called ... "gall". A yellow substance released by the liver for the purpose of digesting fats in the small intestines. The fluid is injected into the intestines (small) through the bile ducts. Bile is also found in the gallbladder.
BILE ACID SEQUESTRANTS: A type of medication which lowers cholesterol by binding with it in the intestines and then removing it via bowel movements. Examples include: colestipol and cholestyramine.
BILE CANALICULI: Also called ... "bile capillaries". Tiny, intercellular channels that occur between liver cells whose function it is to carry bile in the direction of the bile ducts.
BILE CAPPILLARIES: Also called ... "bile canaliculi". Tiny, intercellular channels that occur between liver cells whose function it is to carry bile in the direction of the bile ducts.
BILE DUCT: Also called ... "biliary duct". 1. Any of the ducts that transport bile from the liver or gallbladder to the duodenum Examples include: common bile duct, cystic bile duct and hepatic bile duct. 2. A vessel that carries digestive fluids from the liver to the small intestines.
BILE DUCT - COMMON: The bile duct which occurs where the cystic and hepatic ducts unite. It excretes bile into a small nipple-like growth at the duodenum.
BILE DUCT OBSTRUCTION - EXTRAHEPATIC: Also called ... "surgical jaundice". A blockage which impedes the flow of bile through the cystic bile duct, common bile duct, cystic bile duct or Vater's ampulla.
BILE DUCTS - EXTRAHEPATIC: Passageways which transport bile outside of the liver ... examples include: the common bile duct, common hepatic duct.
BILE DUCT STRICTURE: A narrowing of the common bile duct which may result in abdominal pain, chills, fever and/or jaundice. This condition may due to gallstones, pancreatitis, prior surgery or trauma.
BILE NEPHROSIS: Renal failure seen with patients who experience liver failure. Symptoms: abdominal swelling, diminished urine output, delirium, nausea, vomiting, jaundice. People with alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis are at risk.
BILE PERITONITIS: Inflammation of the thin membrane (peritoneum) that covers most of the abdominal organs due to escape of bile into the peritoneal cavity.
BILE REFLUX: A backward or return flow of bile into the digestive tract and pancreas.
BILE VESSEL: A tiny channel located in the liver which transports bile.
BILI-: A prefix that indicates a relationship to bile.
BILIARY: Referring to bile, bile ducts or the gallbladder.
BILIARY ATRESIA: A situation from birth in which liver bile is unable to reach the intestine due to bile ducts which have not fully developed.
BILIARY CIRRHOSIS: A disease of the liver in which there is a necrosis (death) of the liver and bile ducts ... considered irreversible.
BILIARY CIRRHOSIS OF CHILDREN: A congenital (A condition present from birth but not always inherited) absence of a normal opening of the bile ducts causing biliary cirrhosis (a disease of the liver in which there is death of the liver and bile ducts ... considered irreversible).
BILIARY CIRRHOTIC LIVER: A liver which has clogged and distended bile ducts ... the liver becomes inflamed ... it is a result of biliary cirrhosis (a disease of the liver in which there s death of the liver and bile ducts).
BILIARY COLIC: Intense pain located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen ... typically caused by a gallstone moving from the bladder or through bile ducts.
BILIARY ENDOPROSTHESIS: A stent (slender rod) inserted into a bile duct to allow the flow of bile.
BILIARY PERITONITIS: Peritoneum inflammation due to escaped bile into the peritoneal cavity.
BILIARY SCAN: A test which seeks to identify gallbladder inflammation of and obstruction of a bile duct by using a special radioactive dye which primarily collects in the liver ... it then makes it's way to the gallbladder since it is excreted in the bile. An image is then produced via a "gamma camera".
BILIARY STENOSIS: A narrowing of a bile duct.
BILIARY STRICTURE: A narrowing the biliary tract due to scar tissue (due to disease, injury, gallstones, infection, pancreatitis, etcetera).
BILIARY TRACT: The ducts and tracts that bile travels through as it is being transported from the liver (to ducts, organs and other structures) ... typically it refers to the bile ducts in the liver, the common bile duct which connects the liver/gallbladder to the small intestines, and the cystic duct which travels between the gallbladder and common bile duct.
BILIGENESIS: The manufacture of bile.
BILIOUS: Relating to bile.
BILIRUBIN: It comes from the breakdown of hemoglobin. Daily, a significant number of old red blood cells die and release their hemoglobin which is converted into bilirubin, which, in turn, the liver transforms into a substance that becomes a part of bile. Yellow skin can often be attributed to the pigment bilirubin due to a malfunctioning liver which fails to transform bilirubin into substances that are eliminated by the body. Note that infants often exhibit yellow skin because their livers have not yet developed to full capacity. In fact most infants have this phenomenon after birth. If the levels of bilirubin are too high then brain damage can occur. Often treatment entails the shining of a special light on the baby which transforms the bilirubin into compounds which the body eliminates as bile. No functions of the body require bilirubin … however, it can be an indicator of liver health. A rise is bilirubin in the blood can indicate : 1) liver problems, 2) abnormal, premature destruction of red blood cells.
BILIRUBINEMIA: Blood which contains bilirubin.
BILIRUBINURIA: Urine which contains bilirubin.
BILLIFUSCIN: A derivative of bilirubin typically found in gallstones and old bile.
BILLROTH: Surgeon in Austria 1829-1894 ... disease ... operation.
BILLROTH I ANASTOMOSIS: Also called ... "Billroth's operation I". A removal of the tube shaped part of the stomach which leads into the small intestines (pylorus) with a combining of the stomach and duodenum.
BILOBATE: Something which has two lobes.
BILOMA: A localized deposit of bile occurring in the peritoneal cavity.
BILURIA: Urine which contains bile pigments.
BIOAVAILABILITY: < The length of time (following administration) that it takes for a medication (or other agent) to be delivered to the area where it is intended.
BIOENGINEERING: Also called ... "genetic engineering". The development of chemicals that do not normally occur in nature.
BIOFEEDBACK: 1. A method which enables individuals to control internal body functions which are normally automatic ... i.e., heartbeat, temperature. These techniques can be effective for migraines, Raynaud's disease, back pain, etc.. 2. A technique which seeks to gain control over body functions (like brain waves, body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, etcetera) which usually do not require conscious thought. The body function is typically monitored on an electronic device while the patient undergoes a guided relaxation procedure.
BIOFLAVONOIDS: 1) A vitamin complex which occurs with vitamin C ... rutin and hesperidin are examples. See Vitamin P. 2) A category of flavones found in fruits which have been identified as assisting in the absorption of vitamin C.
BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE MODIFIERS: Substances which affect the operations of the immune system ... they include interferons, interleukins, thymic hormones and monoclonal antibodies.
BIOLOGICAL THERAPY: Also called ... "immunotherapy therapy". Boosting the immune system to fight a disease/ailment.
BIOPSY: The removal of body tissue for the purpose of analysis.
BIOPSY NEEDLE: A surgical instrument used to biopsy deep tissues.
BIOPSY NEEDLE ASPIRATION: A surgical instrument in which biopsy tissue is removed into a syringe by aspiration.
BIOSYN: Type of suture material.
BIOTECHNOLOGY: 1. The application of science in the use of living organisms or their products to develop new products and processes. 2. The use of live organisms to manufacture or modify chemical substances.
BIOTIN: A B vitamin which is manufactured in the intestines and assists in the synthesis of amino acids into protein. It also helps in the breakdown of sugars, fats and also is important in the metabolism (The process within the body that maintains and produces life) of carbohydrates. It is associated with the health of sweat glands, bone marrow, nerve tissues, skin, hair and assists in the growth of cells. It is required for the proper operation f other B-complex vitamins in the body.
BIOX: A term sometimes used to refer to "pulse ox".
BIPAP: Abbreviation for "Bi Level Positive Airway Pressure".
BIPARTITE: Consisting of 2 parts or divisions.
BIPOLAR DISEASE: A mental disorder characterized by periods of mania followed by periods of depression.
BISMUTH SUBSALICYLATE: The active ingredient found in Pepto-Bismol for the treatment of diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion and nausea and ulcers (due to Helicobacter pylori).
BITTER: Medicine having a bitter taste.
BITTERS: A term used to describe alcoholic medications.
BJORK-SHILEY: Type of artificial aortic valve.
Abbreviation for "below knee amputation".
BLACK DEATH: Bubonic plague.
BLACK LUNG DISEASE: Also called "Irritation of the lungs due to inhaling coal dust.
BLADDER: Pelvic organ which stores urine.
BLADDER BLADE: Surgical instrument. Currently being researched.
BLAKESLEY FORCEPS: Surgical instrument ... Currently being researched.
BLANCH: To whiten by removing color.
BLAST: An immature stage of cell development ... see "blastocyte".
BLASTOCYTE: A cell contained in the embryo. They are primitive cells which later develop into more specialized ones later.
BLEB: Large flaccid vesicle ... blister.
BLEPHARITIS: An inflammation of the eye lid which is a highly contagious infection.
BLEPHAR / O: A combining word-form which means "eyelid"
BLEPHAROPLEGIA: Eyelid paralysis.
BLEPHAROPTOSIS: Eyelid drooping.
BLOOD: 1. A complex fluid which contains individual cells that have specific functions on the body. The liquid portion of the blood is called plasma (minus red blood cells, platelets). 2. The circulating "tissue" in the body which consists of plasma containing solid elements like red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood transports nutrition to the tissues of the body and then removes waste products and carbon dioxide for excretion.
BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER: A barrier which prevents some components of blood from passing into brain tissue. Some compounds easily cross the barriers while others are completely blocked.
BLOOD CHOLESTEROL: Cholesterol either manufactured in the liver or obtained through diet which circulates in the blood.
BLOOD CLOT: Mass of blood within a blood vessel which has coagulated ... can cause pain and swelling. Clots in the thighs are dangerous because a piece can break off and be carried through the blood system to the lungs. When this happens it may lodge in a smaller blood vessel and cause an obstruction to that area which results in death of tissue. Calf blood clots are much less likely to dislodge. The clots are typically prevented from growing by use of blood thinner medications like Coumadin (it is the tail of a growing clot which is most likely to break away).
BLOOD COUNT: A study to determine the quantity of red and white blood cells contained in a cubic millimeter of blood.
BLOOD CULTURE: Blood sample which is tested for bacteria and/or other micro-organisms.
BLOOD GASES: The content of gases in blood (typically arterial).
BLOOD GAS DETERMINATION: An analysis of PH in the blood ... it is important for evaluating heart failures, bleeding, kidney failure, drug overdose, shock, diabetes, severe stress.
BLOOD IN URINE: Can be a harmless genetic trait. The medical industry takes it quite serious because it can be an indication of cancer. Note that cancer is not the most common reason for blood in the urine.
BLOOD PRESSURE READINGS: It is the measurement of pressure exerted against the walls of blood vessels. An ideal blood pressure would be less than 130 over less than 85, i.e., 129/84. High normal readings are first numbers of 130?139 and second numbers between 85 and 89. Normal for children is different from adults with a pressure of 126/82 being high at age 10 (134/90 severe). Note that when a blood pressure is outside of the normal limits that a difference between the two numbers of 60 or more can indicate artery hardening. Prior to taking blood pressure readings one should abstain from nicotine, caffeine and exercise for 30 minutes ... then, rest in a chair for five minutes prior to inflating the blood pressure cuff.
BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS: A technique which involves the transfer of blood from a donor to a patient. Blood is collected from the donor after carefully matching blood types using the ABO system, Rh positive or negative and screening of other antibodies. Usually only the red blood cells are used while the plasma and platelets are separated. White blood cells are not used because they are related to the immune system and can prove to be fatal in another body. A bag of blood is called a "unit" and a transfusion may consist of 6-10 units of platelets or 2-4 units of red blood cells. Typical side effects that result from a less than perfect match includes chills and fever which are controlled with steroids, antihistamines and acetaminophen. More serious effects can include AID's and hepatitis.
BLOOD TYPE: A method of classifying blood based on the types of proteins on the surface of red blood cells. Blood is typed A, B, O or AB.
BLOOD UREA NITROGEN: A waste product contained in blood and urine ... the amount can be an indicator as to kidney function and/or dehydration.
BLUE BABY: An infant born having a blue overall color ... typically due to a heart problem.
B LYMPHOCYTES: Blood cells manufactured in bone marrow and the spleen which are associated with the immune system. B lymphocytes are present in all body fluids and their functions include ... detecting foreign invaders, production of antibodies.
BMD: Abbreviation for "bone mineral density" test.
BNC: Abbreviation for … "bladder neck contracture".
BNP: An important blood test in cardiology. It is a tool that helps diagnose and treat heart failure based on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). An assay for BNP can be used to diagnose heart failure, and can also be used to asess the effectiveness of therapy.
BOIL: Skin infection.
BOLUS: 1. A large amount of medication usually given intravenously. 2. A dose of a drug. 3. Chewed food.
BONE MARROW: v Soft material located in the cavities of bones which contributes to the manufacture of blood cells.
BONE MARROW HARVEST: A treatment for some forms of cancer and immunologic diseases which may otherwise be fatal. The basic idea is to remove the bone marrow (1-2 quarts) from the hip of a donor and transplant it into a recipient. The operation takes between 2-3 hours
BONE SPIKE: Surgical instrument / aid.
BONE SPUR: A condition which occurs when tissue is irritated ... the body tries to protect the area by producing a calcium "patch" (spur) ... calcium deposit which covers an inflamed plantar fascia for relief.
BORBORYGMI: Also called ... "stomach growling". Sounds created by gases moving through the intestines.
BORBORYGMUS: Rumbling or gurgling noises produced by gas in the alimentary canal.
BOTSFORD: Michigan Hospital.
BOTULISM: A type of food poisoning caused by anaerobic bacteria which do not require oxygen for survival. Often contracted from canned good.
BOUCHARD'S DISEASE: A muscular tissue disorder involving a stretching of the stomach.
BOUGIE: A surgical instrument shaped like a cylinder which is used to dilate constricted areas like the esophagus or urethra ... may contain a medication.
BOUQUET FEVER: Also called ... "aden fever", "dengue", breakbone fever", "dandy fever", "date fever", "dengue fever", "exanthesis arthrosia", "polka fever", "scarlatina rheumatica", "solar fever". A viral disease which exists in tropical and subtropical areas of the world ... transmitted by mosquitos. Grade I symptoms are fever and general constitutional problems. Grade II symptoms are the same as Grade I but with spontaneous bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract, gums and skin. Grade III symptoms are the same as the first two but with circulatory failure added. Grade IV symptoms add to the first three profound shock.
BOVIE: A surgical instrument used to dissect / cauterize.
BOWELS: The term used to identify both the large and small intestines.
BOWEN'S DISEASE: Carcinoma of the intraepidermal ... symptoms include pink or brown papules covered with a thick horny layer.
BOXER'S FRACTURE: A fracture of the hand, fifth metacarpal.
BMI: Abbreviation for "body mass index".
BPPV: Abbreviation for "benign paroxysmal positional vertigo".
BRACHI / O: A combining word-form which means "arm".
BRACHIAL: Relating to the arm.
BRACHIOCEPHALIC: Refers to the head and arm.
BRACHYTHERAPY: Also called "seed therapy". A treatment for prostate cancer that involves the delivery of radioactive seeds into the prostate gland. One advantage of this procedure is that it requires little time (approximately an hour) and does not require hospitalization. Since the radiation is confined to the prostate there is little chance that it will harm other outside tissues.
BRADY-: A prefix (word part) meaning "slow".
BRADYCARDIA: Regular, but slow heartbeat contractions (less than 60 beats per minute) ... may be abnormal but may be normal in physically fit people.
BRAIDISM: Hypnosis.
BRAIN ANEURYSM: Bulges in brain arteries that are weak points which may break and cause catastrophic bleeding. Note that people with large brain aneurysms are more likely to develop multiple aneurysms and die within three months of detection than those with small aneurysms. Also, smoking has been linked with larger aneurysms.
BRAIN SEIZURE: A sudden discharge in brain cells of electrical energy that can result in unresponsiveness. Typically a person falls to the ground with arms and legs flailing.
BRAIN STEM: An area of the brain containing nerve cables, brain centers and other important brain cells. It is approximately the size of a postage stamp.
BRAT DIET: Bland Diet.
BREAKBONE FEVER: Also called ... "aden fever", "bouquet fever", "dengue", "dandy fever", "date fever", "dengue fever", "exanthesis arthrosia", "polka fever", "scarlatina rheumatica", "solar fever". A viral disease which exists in tropical and subtropical areas of the world ... transmitted by mosquitos. Grade I symptoms are fever and general constitutional problems. Grade II symptoms are the same as Grade I but with spontaneous bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract, gums and skin. Grade III symptoms are the same as the first two but with circulatory failure added. Grade IV symptoms add to the first three profound shock.
BRIGHT'S DISEASE: A kidney disease.
BRIMSTONE LIVER: An enlarged liver (dark yellow in color) which sometimes occurs with congenital syphilis.
BROACH: A surgical instrument / aid which is long and tapered for shaping and enlarging a hole.
BRONCHI: The two branches of the windpipe (trachea) leading to the lungs ... the lung airways.
BRONCHIAL TUBES: Airway passages that bring breathed air to the lungs.
BRONCHIECTASIS: Dilation of breathing tubes.
BRONCHIOLITIS: Viral infection of the small airways of the lungs (bronchioles) which primarily affects young children.
BRONCHIOLITIS OBLITERANS: Lung inflammation combined with scarring and obstruction of small airways (also called "BOOP").
BRONCHITIS: An inflammation of the bronchi (primary tubes used for breathing which leads into the lungs) which causes these airways to narrow. Chronic bronchitis is usually productive of a thick, yellow sputum due to the airways filling with pus.
BRONCHODILATOR: Also known as Beta 2 - agonists which relax muscles in constricted airways.
BRONCHOSPASM: 1. A restriction of airflow into the lungs due to a constricture (narrowing) of lung airways. This condition may be caused by asthma, allergies, lung disease, infection. 2. A constriction (narrowing) of the airways of the lungs due to muscle contractions and/or inflammation. The condition may result from allergies, asthma, infections or lung diseases.
BRONCHOVESICULAR: Bronchoalveolar.
BRONZE LIVER: A liver which is bronze in color and typically seen with malaria.
BROVIACTM CATHETER: A type of catheter. NOTE: BROVIAC is a trademark of C.R. Bard, Inc and its related company, BCR, Inc.
BROWN-ADSON: Fine toothed forceps and other surgical instruments.
BRUCELLA: A type of bacteria (bacillus).
BRUDZINSKI'S SIGN: An involuntary movement of the arm, hip and knee when the neck is flexed in a passive manner (meningitis).
BRUITS: Abnormal sound. Often heard at the carotid artery in the neck.
BRUXISM: Teeth grinding.
BSO: Abbreviation for "Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy".
BUCCAL: Referring to the inside of the cheek.
BUCC / O: A combining word-form which means "cheek".
BUCCOLINGUAL: Refers to the cheek and tongue.
BUDDY TAPE: A type of tape used in operating rooms.
BULBAR: Relating to the "bulbar conjunctiva".
BULBAR CONJUNCTIVA: The eye membrane which covers the front-most surface of the white part of the eye (sclera) and the surface of the outer layer of the transparent tissue of the eye (cornea).
BULBOURETHRAL: Refers to the globular penis and urethra.
BULB SYRINGE: A syringe which is sometimes used to clean the nasal passages.
BULIMIA: An eating disorder which results in food binges followed by vomiting.
BULLA: 1) A large vesicle (blister) appearing as a circumscribed area of separation of the epidermis from the subepidermal structure. 2) A bubble like structure.
BULLA ETHMOIDALIS: Also called "ethmoidal bulla". It is a bulge on the inner wall of the ethmoid labyrinth of the nose.
BULLAE: Plural of "bulla".
BUN: Abbreviation for "blood urea nitrogen".
BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK: Heart block of electrical signals ... the beating of the heart is due to electrical impulses generated by a natural "pacemaker" located in the heart's right atrium (right upper chamber). These electrical signals are conducted to the heart's blood pumping chambers (a right and a left) via "bundles" of specialized cells that compare to electric cables. A "bundle branch block" prevents the impulses to take their normal route. A right bundle branch block may indicate seldom indicates a problem with the heart while a "left bundle branch block" is sometimes an indication that the heart is not operating at full capacity.
BUNDLES: Cables that carry electric currents from the heart's pacemaker (located right atrium) to the heart's pumping chambers (the ventricles).
BUNION: Marble sized growth at the base of the large toe. They often run in families and afflict girls more often than boys. Surgery can reduce the size but is not advisable until after a child's growth has stopped. If the bunion is not painful then it is probably best to live with it. Proper shoes with ample room for the bunion is recommended. Though they do not go away on their own, the pain and size can be reduced by relieving pressure on it. Note: Bunion is the Greek word for turnip.
BURKITT'S LYMPHOMA: Cancer of lymphocytes. The tumor usually affects children and is typically found in the abdomen, lymph nodes, bones or on the skin. This is one of the cancers which AIDS patients are susceptible to. In some areas of the world (Central Africa and New Guinea) it is the most common childhood cancer and linked with the Epstein-Barr virus (the cause of mononucleosis). However, in the rest of the world it is rarely associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. Treatment is based on the age of the patient combined with the progression of the tumor.
BURR: A rough edge often due to drilling.
BURR CELL: A mature red blood cell with bumps of the surface.
BURS / O: A combining word-form which means fluid-filled sac.
BURSA: A sac which contains a fluid, usually to reduce friction. Bursae can be compared to ball bearings which prevent muscles and tendons from rubbing against bone.
BURSAE: Plural of "bursa".
BURSITIS: An inflammation of a bursa.
BURSOPATHY: A disease of a bursa.
BUTTON SUTURE: A stitching technique that brings the suture material outside the skin and through a button. This technique is used to prevent the suture material from "digging in" to the skin (stress relief).
BUTYRATE: A salt or ester of butyric acid.
BYPASS: A surgical procedure in which a pathway is created for the movement of substances.
BYPASS SURGERY: A surgical procedure which bypasses severely blocked blood vessels of the heart. A disadvantage of this procedure is that diseased blood vessels remain in the heart.

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