THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY


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D D D

D5: Abbreviation for ... "dextrose (glucose) in a saline solution (5%).
DACRY / (O): A combining word-form that means "lacrimal duct" or "tear".
DACRYOCYSTIC: Currently being researched.
DACRYOCYSTITIS: Currently being researched.
DACTYL / (O): A combining word-form that means "toe or finger".
DACTYL: A finger or a toe i.e., a digit.
DACTYLOLOGY: Sign language.
DALM: Abbreviation for ... "dysplasia associated lesion or mass.
DALTONISM: Color blindness.
DAMIANA: Used throughout history as an aphrodisiac for women and men. Reputedly has slight sedative qualities that contributes to its reputation of inducing sleep. Also, has been used to treat asthma, diabetes, and bladder infections.
DAN'DER: Fine scaling of the scalp or skin.
DANDY FEVER: Also called ... "aden fever", "bouquet fever", breakbone fever", "dengue", "date fever", "dengue fever", "exanthesis arthrosia", "polka fever", "scarlatina rheumatica", "solar fever". A viral disease which exists in tropical and subtropical areas of the world ... transmitted by mosquitos. Grade I symptoms are fever and general constitutional problems. Grade II symptoms are the same as Grade I but with spontaneous bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract, gums and skin. Grade III symptoms are the same as the first two but with circulatory failure added. Grade IV symptoms add to the first three profound shock.
DARIER'S DISEASE: An inherited skin disease which begins with tiny bumps that become crusted over (black, brown or grey). The outbreaks are exacerbated by heat, humidity and sunlight. Medications which sometimes alleviates the condition includes Vitamin A, Retin-A, Vitamin A in combination with Vitamin E.
DAT: Abbreviation for ... "diet as tolerated".
DATE FEVER: Also called ... "aden fever", "bouquet fever", breakbone fever", "dandy fever", "dengue", "dengue fever", "exanthesis arthrosia", "polka fever", "scarlatina rheumatica", "solar fever". A viral disease which exists in tropical and subtropical areas of the world ... transmitted by mosquitos. Grade I symptoms are fever and general constitutional problems. Grade II symptoms are the same as Grade I but with spontaneous bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract, gums and skin. Grade III symptoms are the same as the first two but with circulatory failure added. Grade IV symptoms add to the first three profound shock.
DATUM: Singular form of the word ... "data".
DAW: Abbreviation for ... "dispense as written".
DB: Abbreviation for ... "direct bilirubin".
DBW: Abbreviation for ... "Desirable body weight".
DC: 1. Abbreviation for "discontinue". 2. Abbreviation for ... "duodenal cap", "descending colon", "dilation catheter", "discontinuation of treatment".
D&C: Abbreviation for "dilation and curettage" ... i.e., of the uterus.
DCG: Abbreviation for "dynamic electrocardiogram".
DD: Abbreviation for ... "digestive disorder".
DDAVP: Abbreviation for "deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin" (desmopressin acetate).
D-DIMER: Chemical test of blood which indicates late pregnancy, arterial or venous thrombosis.
DE-: A prefix (word part) meaning "lack".
DE: Abbreviation for ... "duodenal exclusion".
DEAFFERENTATION: Stoppage of nerve impulses.
DEBILITY: Frailty.
DEBRIDEMENT: Removal of foreign material from a wound, also dead or devitalized tissue.
DECA: Prefix which means ... x10 (ten times).
DECI: Prefix which means ... 1/10
DECIDUOUS: Non-permanent ... used to describe something which ultimately falls off.
DECILITER: 1/10th of a liter.
DECOCTION: 1. The process of boiling. 2. A preparation made by boiling vegetable drugs, followed by straining, in the proportion of 50 grams of the drug to 1000 milliliters of water.
DECOMPENSATION: 1) Inability of the body to adjust to the different types of stress that it encounters. 2) The appearance of a mental disorder due to failure of the defense mechanism. 3) An inability of an organ to adjust itself to altering situations.
DECORTICATION: The removal of the center tissue of an organ or structure.
DECUBITUS: 1. Ulcer, as in a bed sore. 2. A reclining or flat position ... lying down.
DECUBITI: Plural of decubitus.
DEEP TENDON REFLEXES:
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS: A deep vein blood clot.
DEFERVESCENCE: Falling of an elevated temperature.
DEFIBRILLATION: The restoring of a normal heart beat (from an irregular one) by any means.
DEFIBRILLATOR: Any method by which regular rhythm of the heart is restored following irregular heart beats.
DEFINITIVE HOST: The host in which a parasite reproduces.
DEFLUXION: 1. The discharge of fluids. 2. Inflammation.
DEGLOVING: A skin injury to the foot or hand in which most of the skin is removed.
DEGRADED LIVER: A liver organ which is divided into lobes.
DEHYDRATION: A deficiency of body fluids.
DEHYDROGENASE: Enzymes that oxidize substrates triggering the evacuation of hydrogen from metabolites.
DIFFERENTIATION: The loss of sensory nerve fibers from an area of the body.
DEHISCENCE: A bursting open or splitting along a natural or sutured line.
DELEE: Surgical instrument ... brand name of an aspirator.
DELIRIUM: A mental disorder which manifests as speech disorders, confusion, anxiety and sometimes hallucinations ... usually occurs as a result of a disease or toxic drugs.
DELTA AGENT: Also called ... "hepatitis D virus". A single stranded, RNA virus that depends on the hepatitis B virus for reproduction. It is often seen in chronic liver disease.
DELTA INFECTION: An infection which is caused by the hepatitis D (delta) virus. It is a single stranded, RNA virus that depends on the hepatitis B virus for reproduction. It may increase the severity of hepatitis B.
DELTOID: One of the shoulder muscles.
DELUSION: Untrue belief.
DELUSIONAL: Having a deep-rooted belief which cannot be supported by facts ... sometimes seen with schizophrenia and manic depressive disorders.
DEMARCATE: Separate.
DEMENTIA: A term that refers to illnesses that exhibit impaired memory and confused thinking. Alzheimer's is the primary cause.
DEMODEX: A skin mite. Suspected of being involved in the skin disease "rosacea".
DEMULCENT: A soothing medicine which helps to relieve. Soothing, especially to the mucous membranes. Inflammation and irritation of abraded skin.
DEMYELINATING DISEASE: An illness which destroys the myelin sheath of nerves ... sometimes there is an autoimmune component to the disease.
DENATURATION: The process of being "denatured".
DENATURED: Changed from normal ... the term is often used when referring to proteins or nucleic acids that have had heat applied.
DENDRITES: Threadlike extensions that grow out of neurons (nerve cells).
DENDRITIC: The process of branching.
DENDRITIC CELLS: A cell with tentacles for trapping foreign objects.
DENGUE: Also called ... "aden fever", "bouquet fever", breakbone fever", "dandy fever", "date fever", "dengue fever", "exanthesis arthrosia", "polka fever", "scarlatina rheumatica", "solar fever". A viral disease which exists in tropical and subtropical areas of the world ... transmitted by mosquitos. Grade I symptoms are fever and general constitutional problems. Grade II symptoms are the same as Grade I but with spontaneous bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract, gums and skin. Grade III symptoms are the same as the first two but with circulatory failure added. Grade IV symptoms add to the first three profound shock.
DENT / I: A combining word-form that means, "tooth".
DENTALGIA: Toothache.
DENTIBUCCAL: Referring to teeth and cheeks.
DENTIFRICE: A substance used for the cleaning of teeth.
DENTINALGIA: Dental pain.
DENTULOUS: Having natural teeth.
DENUDATION: A removed protective layer.
DENUDE: To remove a protective layer.
DENUDED: That which has had its protective layer removed.
DEPILATE: The removal of hair.
DEPILATORY: Something which removes hair.
DEPOLARIZATION: Electrical activity of heart muscle which results in contraction.
DEPRESSANT: An agent which reduces nervous or functional activity.
DEPRESSION: A feeling of dejection, sadness and hopelessness.
de QUERVAIN: Disease, fracture, thyroiditis.
DERANGEMENT: A disturbance. An upset in the regular order.
DERMAL: Referring to the skin.
DERMALON: Type of suture material.
DERAMTOGRAPHIA: Skin eruption with temporary wheals and sizes with clear margins and pale centers.
DERMATOGRAPHISM: Skin eruption with temporary wheals and sizes with clear margins and pale centers.
DERMATOLOGIC: Pertaining to the skin.
DERMATOME: Area of the skin supplied by cutaneous branches from a single nerve.
DERMATITIS: Inflammation of the skin; venous stasis; Rhus; it often causes scaling, laking, thickening, color changes, itching.
DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS: Skin disease characterized by itching and groups of papules.
DERMATOLOGIST: Specialist of the skin.
DERMATOMYOSITIS: Inflammation of skin, muscle and blood vessels. The disease usually inflicts children between the ages of 5-14. Symptoms include weight loss, decreased appetite, a violet color surrounding eyelids, face swelling, muscle weakness and pain. The cause(s) are not known. Treatment involves the use of the medication prednisone. Note: This is a serious disease that can result in death.
DERMATOPHYTES: A fungal infection which commonly affects hair, skin and nails. Examples include ringworm, athlete's foot. Treatment usually involves the use of antifungal creams and/or oral medicines. Fungal infections of the nails are an exception and can take a lot of time and expense to eradicate.
DERMATOSIS: Skin disease (any type).
DERMIS: The deep middle layer of skin that lies beneath the epidermis. Blood vessels, sweat glands and lymphatic vessels are found in this layer. It is composed of collagen and elastin fibers.
DES: Abbreviation for the drug ... "diethylstilbestrol". This drug was once thought to prevent miscarriages between 1940 and the early 1970's. It is now known that those who took the drug are at risk for developing cancers of the cervix, vagina and uterus.
DESENSITIZATION: To diminish sensitivity to a certain allergen.
DESICCANT: A medication which causes drying.
DESICCATE: The act of "drying".
-DESIS: A suffix which means ... "binding".
DESMALGIA: Ligament pain.
DESQUAMATION: Flaking of skin ... also called "exfoliation".
DETOXIFY: To alter a substance to make it less harmful.
DEXTROCARDIA: A heart that lies on the right side of the chest rather than the left. Does not cause medical problems.
DEXTROSE: Another word for ... "glucose" (the primary source of energy for body cells).
DHEA: (Dehydroepiandrosterone) Abbreviation for "dehydroepiandrosterone". It is the primary hormone of the body produced by the adrenal glands. DHEA is currently the subject of much research (year 2000) because the body's levels are at their highest at approximately 25-years of age. As people age the levels steadily decline and drop to almost non-existent levels by age 50's to 60's. Note, DHEA is not contained within any known substances that can be ingested ... it helps to reduce cholesterol and burn body fat, and may help increase muscle mass. DHEA-S is the most widely circulated hormone in the body and research indicates that high levels are associated with fewer free radicals. DHEA is often referred to as "the youth hormone" by the scientific community and is recognized as an anti-aging substance. It is most highly concentrated at the age of 25 (approx.) and sharply decreases with age. At the age of 80, it only produces 10-20% of what was produced at age 25. DHEA is called the "mother of hormones" because it is used by the body to manufacture many other hormones, including our sex hormones (estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, cortisone, etc.). The body produces DHEA and then converts it on demand to other hormones.
DI-: A prefix (word part) meaning "two".
DIA-: A prefix (word part) meaning, "complete" or "separation".
DIABETES: Also called ... "diabetes mellitus". An illness that is characterized by excessive urination. See "diabetes mellitus" for more information.
DIABETES DIAGNOSIS: If blood sugar after 8 hours is equal to or higher than 126 mg/dl on two separate occasions.
DIABETES, GESTATIONAL: Diabetes during pregnancy.
DIABETES INSIPIDUS: Due to a decreased supple of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone). Vasopressin is produced by the pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) and a low supply results in an increase in urination and thirst.
DIABETES MELLITUS: Small artery disease / disease of the pancreas which is characterized by frequent urination and insufficient insulin secretion. Sometimes it can strike the kidneys and cause them to fail. A symptom which cannot be ignored is when protein leaks into the urine. Strict adherence to diet (blood sugar levels) can arrest the situation. High blood pressure also contributes to the problems which diabetes brings to the kidneys and must be controlled. Diabetics are at high risk for eye problems because it attacks blood vessels that provide nourishment to the retina. Blindness, cataracts, glaucoma can all develop. .... "Poorly controlled" ... "non-insulin dependent".
DIABETIC KETO ACIDOSIS: A condition in which the acid level of the blood is increased due to a shortage of Insulin (causing ketones).
DIABETIC NEUROPATHY: Nerve damage (sensory and motor) typically seen in people with diabetes ... usually affecting internal organs and blood vessels.
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: Degenerative disease of the retina.
DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING: Films of internal body structures usually obtained via x-rays or ultrasound.
DIALYSIS: A several hour, often fatiguing procedure in which a machine pumps blood through filters via tubes and then back into the body. Strictly speaking the word means a complete separation.
DIAMOND-BLACKFAN SYNDROME: A type of anemia due to a lack of red blood cells. Bone marrow lacks parent red blood cells that produce new red cells. Treatments include blood transfusions, cortisone drugs or bone marrow transplant.
DIAPHANOSCOPY: Examination of a cavity with a diaphanoscope.
DIAPHORESIS: Profuse sweating that occurs with a fever, physical exertion, and exposure to heat or stress.
DIAPHRAGM: The primary breathing muscle. It separates the inside of the abdomen and the inside of the chest.
DIAPHYSIS: A term used to designate the shaft of any long bone.
DIAPLASIS: Term which is now obsolete which means setting a fracture or reducing a dislocation.
DIAPLASTIC: See "diaplasis".
DIARRHEA: Stools which are fluid in consistency.
DIASTALSIS: Forward motion of fecal material in the bowels.
DIASTASIS: A separation of parts which are normally connected.
DIASTASIS RECTI: A gap which occurs between two sheets of muscle wither above or below the navel. A bulge typically appears when upon standing and recedes when lying down. It resembles a hernia but does not entrap internal body organs as a hernia often does. Correction can be made through surgical procedures.
DIASTOLE: The relaxation portion of the heart beating process which allows blood to enter.
DIASTOLIC: Part of a blood pressure reading (the second number). The relaxation portion of the heart beating process that allows blood to enter.
DIATHESIS: An inherited condition which makes the body more susceptible to certain disorders than normal.
DICHOTOMY: The division of something into two parts.
DIDYMALGIA: Testes pain.
DIENCEPHALON: Part of the brain which facilitates emotions and regulates body functions.
DIETARY FIBER: Materials (pectins, hemicellulose, plant gums, celluloses) found in plants that are not digestible by human beings.
DIFFERENTIAL: Pertaining to differences. See "differential white blood cell count".
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS: A diagnosis which is determined by the process of elimination (ruling out disorders).
DIFFERENTIAL WHITE BLOOD COUNT: The differential count adds up to 100%. Example: 50% polys, 37% bands and 13%. Polys are polymorphonuclear lymphocytes which includes segs, segmented neutrophils. Also, monos (monocytes), baso (basophils) and banded neutrophils.
DIFFERENTIATION: The process of the embryo whereby general cells transform into specialized ones.
DIFFUSE: A wide area.
DIFFUSION: To spread out equally.
DIGEORGE SYNDROME: A serious condition which results in deformity of the face and hypoparathyroidism. It is caused by underdeveloped parathyroid and thymus glands ... characterized by hypocalcemia and gastroesophageal reflux disease.
DIGESTIVE TRACT: The organs of the body which process food (mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, intestines and rectum.
DIGOXIN: Drug to treat the heart. It acts in a similar way as Digitalis.
DILATATION: (Dil eh tay chun). The act of stretching or dilating.
DINAMAP: A machine used for making blood pressure readings.
DIP: Distal interphalangeal.
DIPHTHERIA: Contagious disease which causes a false membrane to line the throat. It produces a poison throughout the body that is very harmful to the tissues of the heart and central nervous system.
DIPLOPIA: Double vision. Seeing two visions of a single object.
DIPS / O: A combining word-form that means "thirst".
DIPSOSIS: Abnormal thirst.
DIPSTICK: A cellulose strip which is designed to detect glucose, protein and other substances within urine.
DIRECT BILIRUBIN: Direct bilirubin that has been taken up by liver cells and joined to make bilirubin diglucuronide.
DIS-: A prefix (word part) meaning "reversal" or "separation".
DISARTICULATION: Bone separation occurring at a joint.
DISASTER PROTOCOL COLOR CODING: Patients are categorized when they come into the hospital according to need ... "green" means walking wounded, "yellow" is urgent, "red" means critical, "black" means dead on arrival.
DISCOID LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS: A less serious type of lupus that primarily affects the skin. Lesions often develop on the nose and cheek and often the scalp and ears.
DISEASE: An interruption of normal body functioning due to a parasite.
DISINFECTION: Destruction of disease producing microbes by direct exposure to a chemical or other agent.
DISKS: Cartilage pads separating vertebrae.
DISLOCATION: A bone(s) which moved out of it's normal position due to trauma. Fingers, hips, shoulders and jaws are most prone to dislocations.
DISPENSARY: A place which provides free or very low cost medical treatment.
DISPLACEMENT: A situation whereby a part of the body becomes "out of position".
DISSECANS: Currently being researched.
DISSECTION: Surgical removal of body tissue for investigation.
DISSEMINATE: Widely scattered.
DISSEMINATED: Widely scattered.
DISSOCIATION: Separation.
DISTAL: Remote, far away.
DISTAL PULSE: Pulses located farthest from the heart.
DISTENSION: Swollen ... enlargement.
DISTOMATOSIS: A disease like "liver rot" which is caused by digenetic trematode worms.
DISTRACTION: Extending a limb for the purpose of separating fragments of bone or joint surfaces.
DIURESED: Increased formation and release of urine.
DIURESIS: Frequent e excretion of urine.
DIURETIC: Any medication that increases urination.
DIVERTICULA: Plural of "diverticulum".
DIVERTICULITIS: Small pouch like areas that develop in the large intestines. Waste material then becomes trapped in these areas causing inflammation, chills, fever and pain. Diverticulitis normally occurs in people between the age of 50 and 90.
DIVERTICULOSIS: Presence of Diverticula in the intestines.
DIVERTICULUM: A tiny sac that occurs on the wall of hollow organs like the colon.
DKA: Abbreviation for diabetic ketoacidosis.
DL: Properly spelled ... dl. Abbreviation for "deciliter".
DLC: Abbreviation for ... "dual lumen catheter".
DMSO: Abbreviation for ... "dimethyl sulfoxide". A medication typically used to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation. It is also used to promote healing. Often used for cancer, arthritis, stroke, mental retardation, and many sport injuries.
DNA: Abbreviation for "deoxyribonucleic acid which makes up genes ... it is one of the two acids found in all cell nucleus (the other being RNA). DNA molecules are where permanent genetic information is stored. Determines the cell's activities like structure, function and behavior. This genetic material appears as two chains of nucleotides (combination of purine or pyrimidine) wrapped together in a double helix. Each nucleotide (A, T, C and G) has a complimentary (opposite) that attracts.
DNA AMPLICATION: The reproduction of multiple copies of a DNA sequence through the use of enzymes.
DNA ANNEALING: A technique that plays a central role in the categorization of viruses and bacteria. It is a process in which short section of single stranded DNA is reformed into a double stranded DNA.
DNA GENE: Genes typically found in E. coli bacteria that produce proteins that are required for DNA replication.
DNA LIGASE: A part of the DNA repair system ... it is an enzyme required for replication of DNA.
DNA LIGATION: The combining of DNA strands at the ends via a phosphodiester bond.
DNA MARKERS: Known areas of chromosomal DNA which have been linked to diseases and inherited traits. The markers are not responsible for the traits and diseases but are in combination with the various genes that are.
DNA MELTING: The alteration of DNA molecules via heat resulting in the breakdown of the double stranded molecule into two separate single stranded molecules.
DNA POLYMERASE: An enzyme which induces DNA repair of replication.
DNA POLYMERASE I: An enzyme that assists in replication of DNA.
DNA POLYMERASE II: An enzyme that assists in replication of DNA ... it functions in correcting damage due to ultraviolet radiation.
DNA POLYMERASE III: An enzyme that assists in replication of DNA. ... it proofreads DNA that has been newly replicated.
DNA POLYERISATION: The construction of a molecule of DNA from nucleotide monomers (molecular unit that makes up a large structure or polymer).
DNA PROBE: A tiny amount of nucleic acid marked with a dye and used to identify a complementary nucleotide sequence or gene on a DNA molecule.
DNA REPAIR: An enzymic protection of genes which guards against replication errors and environmental damage.
DNR: Abbreviation for ... "do not resuscitate".
DOA: Abbreviation for ... "dead on arrival".
DOBUTAMINE: A drug used to speed up the heart. Typically used for people who are unable to perform a stress test because they are unable to run on a treadmill. The test uses sound-wave pictures to view the fast beating heart (just as in a stress test) and identify if there are any obstructions impeding blood flow.
DOLLS EYES: Vision/reaction test; unconscious. Movement of both eyes in one direction as the head is quickly turned in the other.
DOLORIFIC: Producing pain.
DOPAMINE: A brain chemical that is required for brain cells to communicate with one another. Depletion of dopamine in the brain results in the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
DOPPLER: Relationship of frequency of sound waves ... color flow DOPPLER.
DOPPLER PRESSURES: For evaluation of vascular disease ... Routine blood pressure measurement in infants or critically ill adults.
DORMANCY: Not producing effects, at rest, silent (but in the background).
DORMANT: Not producing effects, at rest, silent (but in the background).
DORS / O: A combining word-form that means "back of the body".
DORSAL: Pertaining to the back.
DORSALIS PEDIS ARTERY: Artery ... the continuation of the anterior tibia artery of the lower leg.
DORSI AND PLANTAR FLEXION STRENGTH: Extremities examination procedure.
DORSIFLEXION: Referring to movement of the foot and leg.
DORSOLATERAL: Referring to the back and side.
DORSOLITHOTOMY: A body position ... Currently being researched.
DORSUM: Back.
DOUBLE BLIND: An experiment involving drugs in which neither the physician nor the patient is told what drug is being used.
DOWN'S SYNDROME: Mongolism ... a type of mental retardation. People with Down's syndrome have one extra chromosome ... they have three of the No. 21 chromosome which develops due to a faulty maturing of the egg (or rarely the sperm).
DPT: Abbreviation for "Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus" (vaccine).
DRAWER'S SIGN: Indicates a torn or ruptured knee ligament. The patient flexes the knee at a right angle as the examiner holds the leg below the knee and moves the leg foreword and then away.
DRESSING: Protective bandage used to cover a wound.
DROP FOOT: A condition of being unable to lift the foot up because of leg muscle paralysis.
DROPSY: Fluid buildup ... edema.
DRUG SCREEN: AST; ALT; GGTP;
DRUG INDUCED HEPATITIS: Liver inflammation due to a drug ... like, acetaminophen, erythromycin, halothane, isoniazid, methyldopa and oral contraceptives.
DRY MACULAR DEGENERATION: The more common type of macular (area of the eye's retina) degeneration ... the other type is "wet macular degeneration".
D-STICK: A measuring device used by diabetics.
DT: Abbreviation for "delirium Tremens".
DTAP: Correctly spelled ... "DTaP: Abbreviation for ... "diphtheria and tetanus toxoid".
DTP: Abbreviation for ... "Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis" vaccine.
DTR: Deep tendon reflex.
DUBIN-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Chronic jaundice which is inherited - cause and mode of operation is unknown ... characterized by a pigmented liver and excretion of coproporphyrin I in urine ... The microscopic study and identification of body cells and tissues in the liver is normal and no therapy is required.
DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: Caused by a genetic defect, it affects muscles in the shoulder, pelvis and thigh of males between the ages of three and five. Braces are usually required by age 10 to enable walking. Spine curvature can become so extensive that breathing becomes difficult. Progression of the ailment can be slowed with Prednisone.
DUCTAL ECTASIA: A condition in which secretions have partially blocked a milk duct causing the duct to enlarge, develop a thickened wall and secrete a green material. This condition is often benign and not a prelude to cancer.
DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS: A pathway which connects the two vessels (pulmonary artery and aorta) adjoining the heart.
DUCTUS CHOLEDOCHUS: Also called ... "common bile duct", "choledoch duct", "choledoch", and "choledochus". The bile duct that occurs where the cystic and hepatic ducts unite. It excretes bile into a small nipple-like growth at the duodenum.
DUCTUS DEFERENS: Duct of the testes that combines with the seminal vesicle to make the ejaculatory duct.
DUCTUS VENOSUS: Prior to birth it is an extension of the left umbilical vein to and through the liver to the vena cava inferior (one of the two large veins which empty into the heart).
DUMPING SYNDROME: Symptoms which consist of sweating, dizziness, flushing, weakness and vasomotor dysfunction. It typically affects people with shunts in the alimentary canal (upper). It is caused by quick passage of food into the small intestines (before it can be adequately digested).
DUODENAL AMPULLA: The enlarged area in the small, nipple-like process of the initial area of the intestines that receives the main pancreatic duct and the common bile duct.
DUODENITIS: An irritation of the duodenum (first part of the intestines).
DUODENUM: First section of the small intestines measuring approximately 10 inches in length.
DUPUYTREN'S CONTRACTURE: A disease involving the connective, fibrous tissue (fascia) of the palm which becomes thick and shortened.
DURA MATER: The substance which covers the spinal cord and brain. It is the outermost layer of the three meninges. The other two layers are the arachnoid and pia mater.
DURITUSS:
DVT: Abbreviation for "deep vein thrombosis". "Thrombo means blood clot ... this is a dangerous condition which requires hospitalization.
DYS-: A prefix (word part) meaning "bad" or "painful".
DYSARTHRIA: Imperfect pronunciation of speech due to lack of muscular control ... often due to damage of the central nervous system.
DYSARTHROSIS: Joint disease or deformity.
DYSCONJUGATE GAZE: The gaze of the eyes being unpaired (uncoordinated).
DYSCRASIA: 1. Abnormal material in the blood. 2. Bad temper.
DYSDIADOCHOKINESIA: A lack of the ability to perform rapidly alternating movements.
DYSENTERY: Irritation of the bowels which results in diarrhea … usually caused by a bacteria or protozoan.
DYSESTHESIA: Impairment of sensation short of anesthesia.
DYSKINESIA: Difficulty performing voluntary movements.
DYSMENORRHEA: Painful menstruation.
DYSMETRIA: The inability to control an action (speed, power). Patient is unable to arrest a muscular movement at the desired point.
DYSPAREUNIA: (dis pare oon ee ah). Painful sexual intercourse.
DYSPEPSIA: Indigestion.
DYSPHAGIA: Speech impairment.
DYSPHASIA: Difficulty speaking, not as severe as aphasia. It usually results from an injury to the speech area of the brain.
DYSPHONIA: An abnormality in the speaking voice i.e. hoarseness.
DYSPLASIA: Altered shape, size or organization of cells.
DYSPNEA: Difficulty with breathing.
DYSPNEIC: Difficulty breathing.
DYSTASIA: Difficulty in standing.
DYSTHYMIA: Mood disorder milder than major depression ... symptoms exist for 2+ years.
DYSTHYMIC: Mood disorder milder than major depression ... symptoms exist for 2+ years.
DYSTOCIA: Abnormal labor.
DYSTONIA: Dystonias are involuntary muscle contractions due to tissues being in an abnormal state of toxicity. For example, "writer's cramp" is dystonia of the hand and finger muscles while dystonia of eyelid muscles cause uncontrolled fluttering that can sometimes render a patient blind. Dystonia of the neck can cause the head to bend downward and lock it into that position. Medical Research Foundation (800) 377-3978 (www.dystonia-foundation.org. The primary feature is involuntary, sustained muscle contractions that force the body into abnormal postures.
DYSTONIC: Displaying symptoms of "dystonia" (involuntary muscle contractions due to tissue toxicity).
DYSTROPHY: Muscles that are abnormally developed resulting in weakness.
DYSURIA: Painful or difficult urination.

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