I&D: Abbreviation for ... "incision and drainage".
THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY
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-IA: A suffix which means ... "condition".
IATROGENIC: 1. Unfavorable results due to medical treatment. 2. An illness caused by the doctor whether real or imagined.
IATROLOGY: A term which means ... "medical science".
IBD: Abbreviation for ... "inflammatory bowel disease".
IBS: Abbreviation for ... "irritable bowel syndrome".
IBW: Abbreviation for ... "ideal body weight".
-IC: A suffix which means ... "chest".
IC: Abbreviation for "intracranial".
ICHOR: A discharge from a sore that resembles water.
ICHTHYOSIS: A skin condition of babies ... symptoms include scaly-dry skin.
ICING LIVER: Pain, swelling, heat and redness of a membrane which produces a fluid that ultimately becomes thick, opaque, white or grayish and covers the liver.
ICTERIC: Referring to jaundice.
ICTERPATITIS: Jaundice (This condition causes the skin and eyes to turn a pale yellow color).
ICTERUS: Yellow appearance of skin, sclerae and mucous membranes due to excess bile (jaundice).
ICTAL: Relating to or caused by a stroke or seizure.
ID: Term used in psychology to mean ... "unconscious".
IDDM: Abbreviation for "Insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus".
IDEATION: Though process.
IDI / O: A combining word-form that means "self".
IDIOPATHIC: The term is usually combined with another ... it indicates an ignorance of the cause of an ailment ... no cause can be found.
IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA: A deficiency of platelets (blood cells which are responsible for clotting) due to removal from the body by the spleen. It is unknown as to why the immune system surrounds platelets with antibodies that tricks the spleen into removing them from the body. Symptoms include bruises of the skin, nosebleeds and excessive menstrual periods. Treatment includes the medication Prednisone, injecting a solution of antibodies (gamma globulin) or removal of the spleen.
IDIOSYNCRASY: Individual characteristics that differ between people.
IDIOTYPIC: Referring to heredity.
IDROSIS: Profuse sweating.
IFN: Abbreviation for ... "interferon".
IG: Abbreviation for "immunoglobulins".
IGG: Correctly spelled "IgG". Abbreviation for "immunoglobulin".
IGA: Correctly spelled "IgA". A minor immunoglobulin which protects the body from infections. Most people can live their lives with a deficiency without developing constant infections ... however, a few do develop a life of one infection after another. A major problem for people with this deficiency is a blood transfusion. Major reactions can develop if the blood does not come from a person who is IgA deficient ... Note that it can also be specially treated.
IGG: Correctly spelled "IgG" ... it is the most important immunoglobulin and a deficiency results in recurrent infections.
IGM: Correctly spelled "IgM". Abbreviation for "immunoglobulin".
IHS: Abbreviation for "In House Service".
IL-6: Abbreviation for "Interleukin-6". Inflammatory immune factor known to be responsible for causing pain and inflammation.
ILDL: Abbreviation for ... "intermediate low density lipoprotein".
ILE / O: A combining word-form that refers to an area of the small intestines known as the "ileum".
ILEITIS: Inflamed area of the small intestines (ileum).
ILEOANAL ANASTOMOSIS: A surgical procedure combining of the end of the ileum (led through the rectum) and joined to the anus. The procedure is usually required because of a diseased inner lining of the rectum which is removed, however, the rectal muscles and anal valve remains intact and feces can still be passed.
ILEOCECAL: A term which refers the cecum and ileum.
ILEOCOLITIS: Inflamed ileum and colon.
ILEOSTOMY: An opening made by a surgeon from the ileum (lowest area of the small intestines) to the body surface.
ILEUM: Lowest area of the small intestines.
ILEUS: Obstruction of the bowel.
ILI / O: A combining word-form that means "flank" (ilium).
ILIAC: Relating to the "ilium".
ILIAC ARTERY: The big artery that transfers blood to the pelvic area and legs.
ILIOCOSTAL: A term which refers to the ribs and flank (ilium).
ILIOPSOAS SIGN: A flexing of the leg to determine appendicitis.
ILIOTIBIAL BAND: The iliotibial band stabilizes and protects muscles of the leg and stabilizes the knee ... it is tissue which extends down the side of the thigh.
ILIOTIBIAL BAND SYNDROME: A typical cause of knee pain in long distance runners. The iliotibial band stabilizes and protects muscles of the leg and stabilizes the knee ... it is tissue which extends down the side of the thigh. Treatment typically consists of six weeks of rest.
ILIUM: Also called the "flank". Blade shaped part of the hipbone, i.e., upper wide portion of the hipbone.
IM: Abbreviation for ... "intramuscular" (usually refers to injections).
IMBIBED: Currently being researched.
IMBRICATE: Overlapping ... similar to roofing shingles.
IMC: Currently being researched.
IMMUNE SYSTEM: The body system that defends against bacteria, fungi, malignant cells, parasites and viruses. The main components of the immune system are lymphocytes, macrophages, antibodies and lymphokines.
IMMUNITY: The ability of the body to protect itself against antigens (a substance that causes the body to manufacture antibodies).
IMMUNOBLAST: A transformed lymphocyte that results when exposed to histoincompatible antigens (a substance that causes the body to manufacture antibodies) ... characterized by a large nucleus and nuclear membrane.
IMMUNOBLASTIC LYMPHADENOPATHY: Also called ... "AILD" ... "angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia". A disorder which occurs mainly in older adults and can culminate in death. The disorder is characterized by enlarged lymph nodes, fever, sweats, weight loss, rashes, skin lesions, spleen and liver enlargement, the duplicity of small blood vessels and immunoblasts.
IMMONOGENICITY: The property of vaccines to stimulate into action the immune system.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS: Antibodies which combat infections. There are five types of immunoglobulins ... IgA, IgG, IgM, IgE and IgD.
IMMUNOLOGY: A specialty science which deals with the immune system.
IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: Harm caused to oneself due to the response of the immune system.
IMMUNOSUPPRESSION: To reduce the ability of the response of the immune system ... this can be accomplished by administering antimetabolites, antilymphocyte serum or specific antibodies.
IMMUNOTHERAPY: Also called ... "biological therapy". Treatment of disease by methods designed to boost the bodies immunity system.
IMPETIGO: Contagious skin disease most commonly seen in children ... pustules (open sores) usually located on the face.
IN-: A prefix (word part) meaning "in" or "not".
INANIMATE: Without life.
INCISION: A wound caused by a surgical cut to open a part of the body. Also, a cut caused by a sharp instrument.
INCISOR: One of the eight front teeth, four in each of the dental arches.
INCLUSION BODIES: Little understood structures seen inside host cells when a virus is replicating.
INCLUSION MYOSITIS: A muscle disorder that causes muscle weakness. It usually begins with weakness in the muscles of the forearm, leg and finger muscles. Falls due to leg weakness is often an indication that something is wrong. Hollow gaps in muscle cells are difficult to treat with medications. Treatment usually includes a physical therapist that helps the patient strengthen and retain as much muscle control as possible.
INCONTINENCE: A decrease or inability to urinate or defecate.
INCRUSTATION: A scab.
INCUBATION: The period of time that it takes for an organism to first invade the body up to the time that the first symptoms commence.
INCUBATOR: A device used to protect premature infants.
IND: Abbreviation for ... "investigational new drug".
INDEX: A guide, standard, indicator, symbol, or number denoting the relation in respect to size, capacity, or function, of one part (or thing) to another.
INDICES: Plural of "index".
INDIGENOUS: Coming from a particular locale or area of the world.
INDIGENT PROGRAM: A program set up to assist needy, lacking or destitute people.
INDIGESTION: Also called ... "dyspepsia". An interruption in the process of digestion ... symptoms may include the following: 1. bloating, 2. gas, 3. nausea.
INDIRECT BILURUBIN: Indirect bilirubin that has not been converted to diglucuronide ... associated with the proteins in plasma.
INDOCYANINE GREEN: A green colored dye that is typically used in liver testing (blood flow) and cardiac output.
INDOLENT: Lack of activity.
INDUCE: To bring about through indirect stimulation.
INDURATION: Hardening of a tissue, particularly the skin.
INEBRIATION: The state of intoxication.
INERT: Not active.
INFANTILE LIVER: A congenital (condition present from birth but not always inherited) absence of a normal opening of the bile ducts causing biliary cirrhosis (a disease of the liver in which there is death of the liver and bile ducts ... considered irreversible).
INFARCT: Dead body tissue due to a blockage that prevents blood from reaching than part.
INFARCTION: 1. Damage to and organ or tissues resulting from a lack of proper blood supply. Note that the damage is typically permanent. 2. A blocked blood vessel.
INFECTION: Disease that results from parasites multiplying in the body.
INFECTIOUS DIARRHEA: Also called ... "traveler's diarrhea". It results from an infection (bacterial, protozoan or viral).
INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS: Illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Also called the "kissing disease" due to the fact that the virus can be transmitted via saliva even after the symptoms of the disease have passed. Symptoms appear 2-3 weeks after contracting the disease and include fatigue, fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes (particularly the neck) and sometimes headache. The virus can be detected with standard liver tests but seldom causes liver damage. A danger to those suffering with the disease is the rupture of an enlarged spleen that can cause death ... contact sports must be avoided. Symptoms subside in approximately 2-3 weeks.
INFECTIOUS PERIOD: The amount of time that an infectious disease may be transmitted ... however, the symptoms of the disease are not always present during this time period.
INFERIOR: A lower area.
INFEROLATERAL: Combination of inferior and lateral.
INFILTRATE: 1. Term used in x-ray technology referring to a fluid that passes into a tissue. 2. An infiltrate can also refer to the administration of a local anesthetic or other medication.
INFIRM: Weak ... lacking strength.
INFIRMARY: A place that is set up to care for sick people.
INFIRMITY: An ailment.
INFLAMMATION: Pain, swelling, heat and redness of tissue due to the secretion of histamine in response to an invasion by germs ... this causes blood vessels to dilate to increase blood flow to the area.
INFLUENZA: A highly infectious, viral (influenza A or influenza B) disease. The virus is confined to the respiratory tract. Symptoms include chills, fever, headache, sore throat, dry cough, nasal congestion, generalized aches and pains. The disease typically lasts for 6-10 days and sometimes longer (several weeks). Three days of bed rest and five days of limited activity are recommended. Influenza often occurs during the winter months and is transmitted when people gather indoors. The disease is spread by air born droplets (sneeze, cough, and infected surfaces). The virus can survive for 48 hours outside of the human body. In the year 2000 vaccinations are available but effectiveness is typically below 50%.
INFUSION: The removal of active properties of substances such as herbs by soaking or steeping it in water.
INFRA-: Prefix meaning "below" or "inferior".
INFRACOSTAL: Below the ribs.
INFRACTION: A fracture.
INFRA PATELLAR: Inferior to the patella, denoting a bursa, pad of fat or synovial fold.
INFRASPINATUS MUSCLE: The muscle that extends and rotates the arm along the side.
INFUNDIBULOPELVIC LIGAMENT: Surgical term ... Currently being researched.
INFUSION: Introduction of a substance into a vein via gravity.
INGRAVESCENT: Slow increase in severity.
INGRESS: A term often used in surgery that means ... "enter".
INGEST: To orally consume.
INGESTION: The process of orally consuming.
INGROWN HAIR: Skin inflammation due to shaved facial hairs that curl backwards and digs into the skin. African-Americans are as high risk due to their tightly coiled hair. Treatment involves freeing the hair with a sterile needle by placing it under the loop of hair and pulling it out. The use of twin blade razors can help
INGUINAL: Pertaining to the groin.
INGUINAL RINGS: Either of the two openings of the inguinal canal.
INION: A point on the head.
INITIAL TREATMENT: The first treatment for an ailment ... follow-up treatments are called "subsequent treatments".
INITIS: Muscle inflammation.
INJECTED: Redness and swelling observed in the physical examination of a part of the body.
INNERVATION: Empowering nerves to a body part.
INNOMINATE ARTERY: A large branch from the aorta that rises to form the right carotid artery and the right subclavian artery.
INOCULATION: An immunization technique that involves the introduction of a germ (or its byproducts) into the body.
INOCULUM: The "germ" (or byproducts) used to immunize a person during inoculation.
INOSITOL: A vitamin of the B family that is associated with the integrity and structure of cell membranes. It is required for the growth of hair and manufacture of lecithin. Also, it is associated with the breakdown of fats and cholesterol. Heavy caffeine use can reduce the levels of inositol in the body.
INQUEST: A medical investigation performed to determine "cause of death".
INR: Abbreviation for "International Normalized Ratio".
INSCRIPTION: The portion of a prescription that lists the ingredients and quantities.
INSIDIOUS: A word used to describe a disease that does not show early symptoms.
INSIPID: Deficiency of taste or animation.
IN SITU: 1. Normal position. 2. Not extending beyond the original area.
INSOLUBLE: Referring something that does not dissolve in a liquid.
INSPIRATION: Inhaling of air.
INSTILL: Pouring a liquid drop-by-drop.
INSUFFLATE: A procedure performed during laparoscopic surgery or investigations that involves the injection of carbon dioxide into the membrane which covers abdominal organs.
INSUFFLATION: The act or process of "blowing into" ... like an aerosol powder or vapor.
INSULIN: Insulin is considered a hormone required for carbohydrate metabolism ... it is manufactured in the pancreas (islets of Langerhans). The hormone regulates the production of blood sugar within the body.
INSULINASE: An enzyme that primarily occurs in the liver ... function is to deactivate insulin.
INTACS: Small, transparent rings implanted on the cornea for purpose of correcting nearsightedness (mild - moderate).
INTEGUMENT: The rind, capsule, or covering of any body or part ... skin.
INTENSIVIST: A person who works in an intensive care unit.
INTER-: A prefix (word part) meaning lying "among" or "between".
INTERATRIAL SEPTUM: The wall that divides the upper chambers of the heart.
INTERCELLULAR: Between cells.
INTERCONDYLAR FRACTURE: Tissue fracture between condyles (lump at the end of a bone where muscles attach to join other bones).
INTERCONDYLAR NOTCH: Currently being researched.
INTERCOSTAL: Between ribs.
INTERCOURSE: The act of "communication".
INTERFERON: A protein manufactured by body cells. It works by stimulating a process in neighboring cells that stop viral growth. Interferon is classified as alpha, beta, and gamma.
INFERIOR VENA CAVA: A vein which has a starting location near one of the bones of the spinal column (5th lumbar) ... it passes through the diaphragm and continues (and empties) into the right atrium of the heart.
INTERLEUKIN: Hormone like proteins (cytokines) secreted by many types of body cells ... there are different "flavors" depending on their amino acid structure ... interleukin 1, interleukin 2, interleukin 3, interleukin 4, interleukin 5, interleukin 6, interleukin 7, interleukin 8, interleukin 9, interleukin 10, interleukin 11, interleukin 12, interleukin 13, interleukin 14, interleukin 15.
INTERLEUKIN-6: A powerful inflammatory factor.
INTERMEDULARY CANAL: Currently being researched.
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION: Leg pain following short periods of exertion ... blood circulation problem.
INTERN: A physician's assistant at hospitals ... period of training ... prior to receiving a permit to practice private medicine.
INTERNAL MEDICINE: A branch of medicine concerned with the non-surgical treatment and diagnosis of ailments dealing with internal structures of the body. It does not deal with the nervous system or skin diseases.
INTERNATIONAL UNIT: Also called ... "IU". The quantity of a substance which is agreed upon by an international regulating body which produces a certain response. Typically the term is Specifid as a dosage amount.
INTERNIST: A doctor specializing in internal medicine.
INTEROSSEUS: Lying in between connecting bones. Also, referring to specific muscles and ligaments.
INTERSTICES: Small areas of spaces in tissue or organs.
INTERSTITIAL: Located "within".
INTERSTITIUM: The bladders supporting & packing material.
INTERTRIGINOUS: Relating to the skin rash ... "intertrigo" (occurs between folds of the skin resulting from friction, moisture and microorganisms. Typically, the ailment is seen in obese adults and very young children.
INTESTINAL FLORA: The so-called "friendly flora" which is present in the intestines and is required for the digestion of certain substances.
INTESTINES: The portion of the digestive tract that begins at the stomach and ends at the anus. It is composed of two sections ... 1) the "small intestines", and 2) the large "intestines". The small intestines are of small diameter when compared to the large intestines and extend approximately 5-6 feet in length within the living body. At death the muscles contract and the small intestines measure approximately 22 feet in length. The large intestines measure approximately five feet in length.
INTERTRIGO: Inflammation / irritation of skin.
INTERTROCHANTER RIDGE: A ridge on one of the two bony structures that stick out on the end of the thigh (it attaches muscles).
INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM: The wall that divides the two lower chambers of the heart.
INTRA-: A prefix (word part) meaning "within" or "inside".
INTRA-ABDOMINAL: Inside of the abdomen.
INTRACTABLE: Resistant to cure or relief.
INTRAHEPATIC: A word meaning "inside the liver".
INTRAHEPATIC DUCT: A word meaning ... "inside" the hepatic duct.
INTRAMUSCULAR: Inside muscle.
INTRAOPERATIVE: Occurring during the course of a surgical procedure.
INTRAUTERINE: Within the womb.
INTRAVENOUS: Inside a vein.
INTRAVENOUS FEEDING: The injection of fluids, nutrients and electrolytes into the veins.
INTRINSIC: A part of ... genetic.
INTRINSIC FACTOR: A chemical manufactured by the stomach that allows the absorption of Vitamin B-12 into the blood and ultimately to bone marrow.
INTROITUS: The entrance into a canal or hollow organ, such as the vagina.
INTRON: Also called ... "intervening sequence". A part of DNA that exists between two exons and is injected into RNA ... after the RNA matures it disappears and is no expressed as protein.
INTUBATION: Insertion of a tubular device into a canal, hollow organ or cavity, specifically, the passage of an oro-nasotracheal tube for anesthesia.
INTUITION: Knowledge that is not obtained in a logical manner ... instinct.
INTUSSUSCEPTION: Having one within another ... like one portion of the intestine within another. It can be fatal and strikes young children aged six months to three years. It is more likely to develop in boys than girls (4 to 1). It is often preceded by an infection of the intestines. The child displays frenzied behavior with intense screaming. To unfold the segment of intestine, a water or air enema is given. If this does not correct the problem then surgery is required within 24 hours to prevent death. It should be noted that there is a one in 10 chance that it will re-develop after correction via enema. An example of intussusception is a telescope which folds into itself ... a portion of the intestines is pulled into a connected portion by the same muscular action which keeps food moving along the intestinal tract thus cutting off blood flow to that section. Narcosis (death) of the tissue results and lethal bacteria is spread throughout the abdominal cavity.
INUNCTION: The act of skin massage.
INVALID: One who is sick and weak.
INVERSION: The act of turning something inside out.
INVERTEBRATE: Animals which lack a back bone.
INVEST: To surround.
INVETERATE: Difficult to cure.
IN VITRO: Within a test tube.
IN VIVO: Within a live organism.
INVOLUTION: The phenomenon that has an organ returning to normal following completion of it's function ... for example, a breast following the completion of breast feeding.
IOBAN VI-DRAPE: Correctly spelled ... Ioban Vi-Drape. A surgical adhesive.
IODINE: A chemical substance manufactured by the thyroid gland to make its hormone ... used medically as an antiseptic. Too little iodine in the body can result in goiter.
ION: Atoms or molecules that have an electrical charge due to the accumulation or loss of and electron.
IPSILATERAL: On the same side.
IPV: Abbreviation for ... "inactivated polio vaccine". Also, "intrapulmonary vein".
IRIDECTOMY: Excision of a portion of the iris.
IRIS: The area of the eye that is colored.
IRITIS: Iris inflammation.
IRON LUNG: A device that aids a patient's breathing.
IRON MALABSORPTION: A condition where the digestive tract does not absorb an adequate amount of iron.
IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: Abbreviation is "IBS". Because symptoms can be different for different people it is very difficult to diagnose. In the year 2000 medical science does not know the cause. Sometimes, it is caused by bands of muscle, which wrap around the intestines and contract for the purpose of ridding the body of undigested food. Contractions of these muscles are random with irritable bowel syndrome resulting in chronic pain of the abdomen, bloating, gas, constipation, diarrhea and stomach cramps. Emotions can promote an attack (chronic anxiety causes patterns of unusual movements of the intestines). A high fiber diet and suspension of the use of laxatives are considered the key to soothing irritable bowels. Note that rectal bleeding is not a symptom of irritable bowel syndrome.
ISCHEMIA: Poor blood supply to a body part often causing pain. It is sometimes caused by a blockage or constriction of a blood vessel.
ISCHIORECTAL: Pertaining to the rectum and ischium.
ISCHIUM: A bone of the body ... pelvis.
ISCHURIA: Inability to urinate.
ISLETS OF LANGERHANS: The specialized cells of the pancreas that manufactures insulin.
-ISM: A suffix that means ... a "condition".
ISOCHROMATIC: Something which has uniform color ... refers to things which have the same color.
ISOENZYME: A group of enzymes that stimulate the same reactions but may be distinguished by different physical properties.
ISOLEUCIN: One of the essential amino acids ... required for infant development and the proper balance of nitrogen in adults.
ISOMER: One of two or more substances displaying isomerism (compounds existing in two or more forms that are the same in composition but different regarding the position of atoms).
ISOMERISM: A chemical compound existing in two or more forms that are the same in composition but different regarding the position of atoms.
ISOTOPE: A chemical that is identical to another but differing in a characteristic such as radioactivity.
-IST: A suffix which means ... "specialist".
I-STAT: Blood testing procedure performed at some hospitals (Sparrow).
ISTHMUS: A narrow area (neck) of an organ.
-ITIS: A suffix which means ... "inflammation".
ITP: Abbreviation for "idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura".
IU: Abbreviation for ... "International Unit". It is the quantity of a substance that is agreed upon by an international regulating body that produces a certain response. Typically the term is specified as a dosage amount.
IUD: Abbreviation for "intrauterine device" ... a device which acts as a birth control method. It involves the placement of a piece of metal or plastic in the womb.
IUP: Abbreviation for "Intrauterine pregnancy".
IV: Abbreviation for "intravenously".
IV CATHETER: A tiny, hollow tube that is inserted into a vein to provide access to mediations via a needle.
IVDU: Abbreviation for ... "intravenous drug user".
IVIG: Abbreviation for "intravenous immune globulin" which is a blood product which may help to prevent miscarriages.
IVN: Abbreviation for ... "intravenous nutrition".
IVP: Abbreviation for "Intravenous pyelography".
IV PUSH: The injection of a drug into a vein at a rapid rate so it will enter the blood stream all at once.
I&D: Abbreviation for ... "incision and drainage".