THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY


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Na: Symbol for ... "sodium".
NABX: Abbreviation for ... "needle aspiration biopsy".
NaCL: Chemical symbol for ... "sodium chloride".
NADIR: Low area.
NAILS: A common term used to describe the modified skin that grows from the ends of fingers, thumbs and toes. The nail begins at the "nail root" which is embedded in the skin and is surrounded by the "nail wall". Beneath the nail is skin called the "nail bed". Also see "lunula".
NAILBED: The area of skin located on toes and fingers which are covered by nails.
NAILBED COMPRESSION: A neurological test to determine sensation.
NANOMETER: One billionth of a meter (250 millionth of an inch).
NANUS: Another word for "dwarf".
NAPE: Another word for "back of the neck".
NARCISSISM: Abnormal love of oneself.
NARCOLEPSY: A sleep disorder that is characterized by sleeping spells which come on suddenly at any time of the day. Usually manifests itself in the 20's or 30's. Control can be obtained with daytime naps, exercise and restriction of caloric intake. In the year 2000 the medical industry prescribe Modafinil, methylphenidate or amphetamine.
NARCOMANIA: Narcotic seeking behavior.
NARCOSIS: A condition of being unconscious.
NARCOTICS: Medications that are used for the management of pain. Some examples are Morphine, Codeine, Oxycodone, Hydromorphone, Fentanyl, and Demerol. Note that these drugs should not be stopped immediately because of withdrawal symptoms.
NARCOTIC ANTAGONIST: Medications which counteract the effects of narcotics. These drugs can be used to identify drug addicts because they bring on withdrawal symptoms in these people.
NARES: The openings of the nose. Singular is Naris.
NARIS: One of the openings of the nose.
NAS / O: A combining word-form that means, "nose".
NASAL: A term which refers to the nose.
NASAL CANNULA: See section on "Oxygen Supplementation".
NASAL SPINE: Portion of the frontal bone.
NASION: Tip of the nose.
NASOGASTRIC TUBE: A tube made from plastic which is designed to pass into the stomach from the nose to drain gas and liquids.
NASOPALATINE: Referring to the roof of the mouth (palate) and nose.
NATAL: A word which refers to ... 1) birth, 2) buttocks.
NATANT: Floating.
NATHAN'S TEST: To determine the presence of tuberculosis. A dressing with a special serum is applied to the skin for one day. The dressing is observed for a positive reaction (within six days).
NATIS: Another word for "buttocks".
NATUROPATHIC DOCTOR: A primary care provider who primarily uses natural healing methods.
NATUROPATHY: Treating disease without the aid of medications.
NAUPATHIA: Another word for motion sickness.
NAUSEA: A feeling that one is on the verge of vomiting.
NAVEL: The area located on the abdomen where the umbilical cord was attached.
NAVICULAR: Boat shaped; scaphoid;
NCAT: Abbreviation for "normocephalic, atraumatic".
NEB: Abbreviation for ... "nebulizer".
NEBULIZER: An atomizer ... a device for throwing a spray.
NECK: A body part which connects the trunk with the head. Typical internal components which make up the neck include ... the pharynx ... esophagus ... larynx ... trachea ... thyroid ... many lymph nodes. The neck can be viewed as an extension of the respiratory and digestive system. The rear of the neck contains a large number of nerves within the spinal column. Also located in the neck are seven cervical vertebrae the first of which is called the "atlas" (accounts for up-and-down movement of the head) ... the second is called the "axis" (accounts for side-to-side movement of the head).
NECRO: A combining work form which means "referring to death".
NECROBIOSIS: Death of cells due to changes associated with development of aging.
NECROLYSIS: Another word for ... "gangrene".
NECROMANIA: A morbid preoccupation with death.
NECROPSY: Another word for "autopsy".
NECROSIS: The demise (death) of a body part due to lack of blood supply.
NECROTIZING FASCIITIS: Also called "flesh-eating disease" which is caused by common group A streptococcus. It is unknown in the year 2000 why this common bacteria (which causes sore throats) contaminates a wound and produces symptoms of intense pain, swelling, inflammation, hot skin. The disease in not contagious but extremely dangerous and death can occur within 12 to 24 hours. The disease is fatal in 20-30 percent of sufferers and is treated with antibiotics and surgical removal of infected skin.
NEEDLESTICK: An accidental skin puncture from handling hypodermic needles.
NEGATIVE AFTERIMAGE: A phenomenon of the eye which occurs after staring at an object and then promptly closing the eyes and seeing a residual image in a color which is complimentary to the original.
NEGRO'S PHENOMENON: Also called ... "cogwheel phenomenon". An alteration of smooth respiratory effort with a sudden and brief halt.
NEMATODE: A roundworm from the phylum Nematoda.
NEO-: A prefix (word part) meaning "new".
NEOGALA: The milk that is produced by the mother following childbirth.
NEONATE: New baby.
NEONATAL: Referring to a newborn baby. Also, the period of time following birth (one month).
NEONATUS: Another word for a "newborn baby".
NEOPATHY: A new complication ... disease.
NEOPLASM: Tumor; new growth which might be either benign or cancerous.
NEOPLASTIC: Relating to tumors.
NEPHR / (O): A combining word-form which means "kidney".
NEPHRALIGIA: Kidney pain.
NEPHRECTOMY: The surgical excision (removal) of a kidney.
NEPHRIC: Referring to the kidney(s).
NEPHRITIS: Kidney inflammation.
NEPHROLITH: Another word for ... "kidney stone".
NEPHRORRHAGIA: Kidney hemorrhage.
NEPHROLITHIASIS: Kidney stones.
NEPHROLOGIST: One who specializes in the study of kidneys.
NEPHROLOGY: The scientific study of kidneys.
NEPHROMA: A tumor growth occurring on the kidney.
NEPHROPATHY: Another word for ... "kidney disease".
NEPHROPEXY: The anchoring (sewing) of a kidney which is free floating.
NEPHROSIS: Kidney destruction without accompanying inflammation.
NEPHROSTOMY TUBE:
NEPHROTIC: A disorder related to the kidneys.
NEPHROTOXIC: Something which is harmful to the kidneys.
NERVES: The term usually refers to fiber bundles outside the CNS (central nervous system). There are three types of nerves ... 1) Sensory nerves (receives and transmits information to the brain). 2) Associative nerves (transmits electrical signals [impulses] from sensory to motor nerves.) 3) Motor nerves (transmits electrical signals from the brain to glands and muscles). Note: Eighty-six nerves exist in the body ... 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of nerves related to the spine. Other nerves are simply branches of these.
NERVE BLOCK: A medication (or other method) which acts to numb an area of the body. Typical nerve blocks include local anesthetics in dental work.
NERVI: Latin plural ... "nerves".
NERVINE: A substance which calms the nerves.
NERVOUS SYSTEM: The highly specialized sytem which receives information about the outside world and relays it to the cells, organs and tissues of the body. There are two parts to the nervous system ... the somatic (sense organs) ... visceral (control of inner organs). Control of the nervous system is dependant on brain and spinal cord. At the base of the brain are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves originating at the spinal cord (peripheral nerves).
NERVUS: Latin word for "nerve".
NEUR / (O): A combining word-form that means "nerve".
NEURAL: Referring to the nerves.
NEURALGIA: Nerve pain usually caused by infections or injuries to the nerve. Affected areas often include ... lumbar back area, eye(s), rear of the neck. Note: Sharp chest pains suggestive of pleurisy or heart disease may also be caused by neuralgia.
NEURAPRAXIA: A mild nerve lesion that can cause a loss of sensation in affected areas. Often mis-spelled "neuropraxia".
NEURASTHENIA: A condition that results in fatigue thought to be brought on by psychological reasons.
NEURECTASIA: To relieve pain by stretching the nerve.
NEURITIS: Nerve inflammation resulting in constant and burning pain. Causes include infections, traumas (injuries), poisons or chilling. The skin is usually red along the length of the inflamed nerve that is described to feel like, "a burning sensation" ... the flesh feels as though it were "numb".
NEUROBLASTOMA: A cancer made from cells that come from tissues in the womb ... nervous system.
NEUROCRANIUM: The part of the cranium covering the brain.
NEUROCIRCULATORY ASTHENIA: Also called "soldier's heart" and effort "syndrome". A complex of symptoms involving the circulatory and nervous systems ... shortness of breath, fatigue, increased heart rate, anxiety.
NEUROCYTE: And of the varieties of nerve cells.
NEURODERMATITIS: Damage to the skin caused by scratching.
NEUROFIBROMATOSIS: Hereditary disorder which causes growths on nerves and surrounding areas of tissue. These growths can cause problems when they impede the functioning of organs. When on the skin these growths are unattractive.. The most common is Type I peripheral neurofibromatosis that manifests itself with patches of hyper pigmentation in subcutaneous and cutaneous tumors. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS FOUNDATION can be contacted at 1-800-323-7938.
NEUROGENIC: Coming from the nervous system.
NEUROLEPTANALGESIA: A technique to change one's perception of pain by the administration (intravenously) of a general anesthetic (neuroleptic drug) combined with the inhalation of another (weaker) anesthetic. Sometimes a neuromuscular relaxant is used.
NEUROLOGIST: Doctor who specializes in the nervous system.
NEUROMA: A tumor which is made up of nerve material.
NEUROMUSCULAR: Referring to the muscular and neurologic systems.
NEURON: Another word for "nerve cell.
NEUROPATHY: Implies nerve damage. NEUROPATHY ASSOCIATION @ 800-247-6968.
NEUROPEPTIDES: Strings of amino acids that float throughout the body and transfer information.
NEUROPHTHISIS: Degeneration of nerves.
NEUROPRAXIA: Common misspelling of the word ... "neurapraxia".
NEUROSIS: Mental disorder.
NEUROSPASM: Muscle twitching.
NEUROSURGEON: A surgical specialist ... nervous system and brain.
NEUROSYPHILIS: Syphilis affecting the nervous system.
NEUROTHLIPSIS: Pressure on a nerve.
NEUROTOXIC: Something that can destroy nerve tissue.
NEUROTRANSMITTER: Chemicals that transfer nerve signals from one cell to another ... Acetylcholine, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine and serotonin.
NEUTROPENIA: A decrease in the number of neutrophilic white blood cells.
NEUTROPHILS: One of the five types of white blood cells. They account for approximately 45-74 percent of total white blood cells. Neutrophils rush to the site of infection and engage in contact with the invading foreign body. Pus is the natural byproduct of this process and is composed of dead neutrophils. A total count of less than 1,000 is considered deficient and put the body at risk for infection.
NEVI: Pleural of "nevus".
NEVUS: A circular malformation of the skin ... include moles, freckles, birthmarks, etcetera. Dark-colored moles that are flat and without hairs have a tendency to develop cancer.
NEXUS: Uniting.
NG: Properly spelled ... "ng". Abbreviation for ... "nanogram".
NG TUBE: Abbreviation for "nasogastric tube".
NIACIN: Another word for "vitamin B3". See vitamin B3 for more information.
NICOTINE: An alkaloid contained in tobacco products which affects nervous system(s).
NICU ADMISSION: 1. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. 2. Neurologic Intensive Care Unit.
NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE: Inherited mental illness. Progressive blindness and skin discoloration and possible "early death" prognosis.
NIGHT TERRORS: Typically affects children prior to late adolescence. The child often wakes up screaming, covered in sweat, with a racing heart. Sometimes, the person wanders around in a terrified state. Upon fully awakening, the sufferer seldom remembers what happened. They often occur in children who have a parent who experienced them.
NIEMANN DISEASE: Also called ... "Niemann-Pick disease" and "sphingomyelin lipidosis". An inherited ailment that occurs mostly in Jewish infants and typically leads to early death ... a lesser form rarely inflicts adults. It results in a gathering of phospholipids (a lipid containing phosphorus) in macrophages (immunity cells) of the bone marrow, liver, lymph glands and spleen ... this results in an enlarged spleen, lymph nodes and liver. It also results in malnutrition.
NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE: Also called ... "Niemann disease" and "sphingomyelin lipidosis". An inherited ailment that occurs mostly in Jewish infants and typically leads to early death ... a lesser form rarely inflicts adults. It results in a gathering of phospholipids (a lipid containing phosphorus) in macrophages (immunity cells) of the bone marrow, liver, lymph glands and spleen ... this results in an enlarged spleen, lymph nodes and liver. It also results in malnutrition.
NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE TYPE A: The buildup of "sphingomyelin" (fatty material) and cholesterol in liver, brain and spleen cells. Malfunction of these cells is the end result. This illness generally affects babies who often die by the age of four. There is no cure in the year 2000.
NIGRA: Another word for "black".
NIGRITIES LINGUAE: A tongue which has become black.
NIH: Abbreviation for ... "National Institute of Health" (research facility of the government).
NIL: Another word for ... "none".
NISSEN FUNDOPLICATION: The suturing of the fundus of the stomach to prevent reflux.
NIT: The egg of a louse.
NITRITE: Chemical compounds that dilates small blood vessels. Typically used to lower blood pressure. Note: Many bacteria will convert nitrates to nitrite.
NITROFURANTOIN: Used for urinary tract infections. Ingredient in Macrobid, Macrodantin.
NITROGEN: A gas which is colorless and odorless. It makes up almost 50% of the air and combines with other elements to form proteins.
NITROSAMINE: A preservative typically used in processed foods.
NJ: Abbreviation for ... "nasojejunal".
NK CELLS: Also called "natural immunity cells" and "cancer fighter cells". They devour cancer and virus infected cells. Note that one teaspoon of sugar impairs the ability of these cells to fight foreign objects bu up to six hours.
NKA: Abbreviation for "no known allergies".
NM: Correctly spelled ... "nm". Abbreviation for ... "nanometer".
NMT: Nebulized Mist Treatment.
NOCT / (I): A combining word-form that means "night".
NOCTOPHOBIA: Abnormal fear of the nighttime.
NOCTURIA: Abnormally increased amount of urination during the night. Also, "bedwetting".
NOCTURNAL EMISSION: Nighttime ejaculation of sperm ... involuntary.
NODES: Protuberances which are small and round. Cervical; Supraclavicular; Epitrochlear; Axillary; Inguinal.
NODULAR: Possessing knoblike, circumscribed swellings.
NODULE: 1. Small, knob like growth. 2. A small mass.
NOMA: Mouth gangrene typically found in undernourished children.
NOMOGRAM: A series of scales arranged so that calculations can be performed graphically.
NONCOMPLIANCE: Not following the instructions dictated by a health care provider.
NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA: The more common of the two "lymphomas" (see Hodgkin's disease). It results in abnormally large lymph nodes (glands) sometimes combined with weight loss, fever, and sweating at night.
NONINVASIVE: A medical procedure that does not require the penetration into the body.
NONREBREATHING MASK: See section on "Oxygen supplementation".
NONRESPONDER: A person who fails to respond to therapy.
NON-SECRETOR: Approximately 15% of people are categorized as non-secretors due to the fact that they do not secrete their blood antigen into their secretions. Rheumatic heart disease and alcoholism have been associated to this status.
NONUNION: A failure of bones to unite.
NONVIABLE: Inability to thrive.
NOREPINEPHRINE: Adrenal gland hormone secretion which restricts blood vessels (small).
NORMAL SALINE: Solution of salt approximating the concentration of salt in body fluids.
NORMOACTIVE: Contraction meaning "normal activity".
NORMOCEPHALIC: Contraction meaning "normal head".
NORMOCYTE: A red blood cell of "normal" dimensions.
NORMOTENSIVE: Indicating a normal arterial blood pressure.
NORMOTENSIVE: 1. Refers to normal blood pressure. 2. Indicating a normal arterial blood pressure.
NOSOCOMIAL: A disease condition acquired while in a hospital.
NOTALGIA: Pain of the back.
NOTCHPLASTY: Currently being researched.
NOTIFIABLE DISEASE: An infectious disease that is required by law to be reported to the authorities.
NOXIOUS: Injurious; harmful; poisonous.
NPH: Abbreviation for "Neutral Protamine Hagedom (insulin).
NPO: "Nothing by mouth". NPO is an abbreviation from the Latin phrase Nil peros (nothing by mouth).
NS: Abbreviation for ... "normal saline solution".
NSAIDS: Abbreviation for "nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs" such as aspirin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, Advil. Motrin, Aleve, Orudis and Indocin. They work by blocking prostaglandins. A new class of NSAIDS include Celebrex and Vioxx that do not irritate the stomach and are less likely to cause stomach bleeding.
NUBILE: A female able to bear children.
NUCHA: Referring to the "rear of the neck".
NUCHAL: Referring the "nucha" (back of the neck).
NUCHAL RIGIDITY: A resistance in bending of the neck ... rigidity of the neck.
NUCLEIC ACID: Chemicals found in RNA and DNA mostly made up of phosphoric acid, nitrogenous bases and sugar.
NUCLEOCAPSID: Virus core consisting of genetic material within a protein coat.
NUCLEOSIDE: A compound typically found in DNA and RNA consisting of sugar, purine (or pyrimidine). There are four types: 1) nucleoside bisphosphate, 2) nucleoside diphosphate, 3) nucleoside monophosphate, and 4) nucleoside triphosphate.
NUCLEOTIDE: Also called ... "mononucleotide". A combination of nucleic acid, purine, sugar ... the basic structural unit of DNA and RNA.
NUCLEUS: The center of a cell ... typically oval in shape and contains genetic material surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
NUCLEUS PULPOSUS: The soft fibrocartilage central portion of the invertebral disk. It is a rubbery substance fails with age when stressed.
NULLIPARA: A female who has not given birth.
NULLIPAROUS: A female who has not given birth.
NUMMULAR: Resembling a coin.
NURSEMAID'S ELBOW: Longitudinal subluxation of the radial bone into the articular ligament.
NUTCRACKER ESOPHAGUS: The muscles of the esophagus fail to constrict in a normal fashion. Symptoms include difficulty in swallowing and chest pains. Food actually sticks in certain areas and complete the digestive cycle. It is an unpleasant ailment. However, no one has ever died from it.
NUTMEG LIVER: A condition typically due to lung and/or heart disease ... the liver appears like a nutmeg due to the congestion.
NUTRACEUTICAL: Food substances having health benefits.
NVA: Abbreviation for "near visual acuity".
NX: Unknown amount of lymph node involvement during a malignant process.
NYCTALGIA: Nighttime pain.
NYCTALOPIA: Also called "night blindness". An inability to see under low light conditions ... due to a problem with the "rods" of the retina.
NYCTERINE: That which happens at nighttime.
NYCTOTYPHLOSIS: Also called "night blindness". An ability to see at nighttime.
NYGMA: Wound caused by a puncture.
NYLEN-BARNY MANEUVER:
NYMPHECTOMY: Remove of the lips (small) of the vagina via surgical methods.
NYMPHOMANIA: Abnormal desire for sex by a female.
NYSTAGMUS: Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball.
NYXIS: To cause a puncture wound.

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