THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY


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A A A

A-: Prefix (word part) meaning "not" or "without".
AAF: Abbreviation for "Acetyl amino fluorene".
AARON'S SIGN: A pain that occurs with an attack of appendicitis, located between the naval and the right hip bone.
AB-: A prefix (word-part) meaning "aberrant", "not normal".
ABASIA: Inability to walk due to a loss or decrease of motor function.
ABC: Abbreviation for ... "aspiration biopsy cytology.
ABD: A type of plain gauze dressing.
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM: A bulging of the wall of the aortic blood vessel in the abdomen.
ABDOMINAL DISTENTION: Increased abdominal girth.
ABDOMINAL GIRTH: Measurement of the distance around the abdomen at a specific point (typically at the level of the umbilicus).
ABDOMINO: Also called a ... "perineal resection". Surgery in which a portion of the sigmoid colon (end) and the rectum/anus are removed. The colon that remains is brought to the surface of the body to make a colostomy.
ABDOMINOCYSTIC: Referring to the abdomen and the gallbladder.
ABG: Abbreviation for "arterial blood gas".
ABDUCE: Abduct.
ABDUCT: Movement away from the midline. Commonly the movement of an arm or leg away from the body.
ABDUCTOR: A muscle that moves a part away from the midline.
ABIRRITANT: An agent, which diminishes or relieves irritation.
ABLATION: Removal or destruction of a body part.
ABM: Abbreviation for ... "adjusted body mass".
ABO ANTIGENS: Antigens (proteins) located on the surface of the erythrocyte. The unique properties of blood are due to these antigens.
ABO BLOOD GROUP: A system which comprises the four blood groups ... A, B, AB or O.
ABORAL: Refers to a direction, which is away from the mouth.
ABOUCHEMENT: The continuation of a smaller vessel into a larger one.
ABRASION: An injury, which rubs off a surface area of skin to result in a bleeding surface.
ABROSIA: Lack of food.
ABSCESS: Pus collected in tissue. It typically forms when foreign organisms destroy tissue. Physicians drain abscesses of pus and bacteria because antibiotics are not able to reach the core of an abscess. Note that it takes a long time for an abscess to heal.
ABTORSION: A condition where both eyes turn outward.
ABUTMENT: A tooth which is used as an anchor for a bridge.
-AC: A suffix which refers to the "heart".
AC: Abbreviation for "before meals"; "Auditory canal";
ACAMPSIA: A rigid body part.
ACAPNIA: Decreased amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood.
ACARID: Mite, tick.
ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE ORGANS: Organs that assist with digestion but are not a part of the digestive tract ... tongue, glands in the mouth that make saliva, gallbladder, liver and pancreas.
AC JOINT: "Acromioclavicular Joint"; the hinge which connects the collarbone and the shoulder blade.
ACCESSORY MUSCLES: A muscle that is an exact copy of another, usually noticed as a swelling beneath the skin.
ACCOMMODATION: The state of adapting to something ... adjustment.
ACCU-CHEK: Exam for blood sugar level (104, 229)
ACCUSOM ULTRASONIC PROBE: Currently being researched.
ACE: Abbreviation for "angiotensin converting enzyme" it converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II which is a powerful blood pressure raising hormone.
ACE BANDAGE: Trademark for an elastic woven bandage.
ACE INHIBITORS: Drugs such as Accupril, Altace, Capoten, Lotensin Prinivil, Vasotec, Zestril all of which works to control blood pressure. They block the production of Angiotensin II which causes blood pressure to drop. It is to be noted that anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit the effects of ACE inhibitors ... stay away from Advil, Motrin, Naprosyn and Indocin. (see "ACE")
ACETABULUM: A depression on the surface of the hip bone ... where the head of the femur fits, i.e.. the hollow area of the hip bone where the thigh bone fits.
ACETATE: A salt or ester.
ACETIC: Sour ... like vinegar.
ACETONE: Colorless, inflammable solvent and found in large quantities in diabetic urine.
ACETYCHOLINE: Neurotransmitter ... a body acid which is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.
ACHALASIA: Failure to relax ... usually referring to hollow, muscular organs like sphincter muscles.
ACHILLES TENDON: The "heel cord". A tendon located at the rear of the heel and connecting to calf muscles. Symptoms of an inflamed Achilles tendon include pain, swelling and warmth ... rest is required (does not require total inactivity). Healing typically requires 4-6 weeks.
ACHOLIA: Absence of bile.
ACHOLIC: An absence of bile.
ACHOLURIA: Absence of bile in urine ... typically the term is used to describe a type of jaundice.
ACHOR: A small skin elevation located on hairy portions of the body.
ACIDOTIC: Pertaining to a "state" of acidity.
ACID BURNS: Burns due to contact with acid. Treatment consists of immediate removal of the acid through washing followed by the application of a mild alkali like baking soda to neutralize remaining acids. Next, the wound is cleansed with fresh water and dried.
ACIDOPHILUS: "Good" bacteria which lives in the intestines. It assists the body in fighting diseases and acts as and digestive aid. It assists in the prevention of acne, bad breath, fungus and diverticulosis. It also assists the body in absorbing minerals like calcium into the body.
ACIDOSIS: An abnormal increase in "acidity level" of the body.
ACID REFLUX: Heartburn. It is caused by a backwards flow of contents from the duodenum and stomach into the esophagus. Prilosec is one of the most effective medications but medicines cannot be depended on solely for controlling it. In addition, do not lie down after large meals ... do not smoke ...limit citrus fruits, tomatoes, fatty foods, chocolate, peppermint, carbonated beverages, vinegar or alcohol.
ACINAR: Referring to the "acinus".
ACINI: Plural of ... "acini".
ACINIC: Referring to the "acinus".
ACINUS: 1. Any small saclike structure (sometimes referred to as alveolus). 2. Portion of the lung. 3. Opening of the acinous gland. 4. A small, grape-shaped opening of the acinous gland.
ACINOUS GLAND: Typically the exocrine portion of the pancreas ... more specifically - any gland which has a grape-like area where secretions are expelled.
ACL: Abbreviation for ... anterior cruciate ligament.
ACLS: Abbreviation for "Advanced Cardiac Life Support".
ACME: Crisis.
ACNE: A skin condition which usually inflicts adolescents whereby the glands of the skin become infected to produce black heads (comedos) and skin elevations (pimples). Grease secreted by sebaceous glands blocks the openings of pores.
ACRO-: A prefix (word part) meaning "extremities".
ACROARTHRITIS: Arthritis affecting the extremities.
ACROMEGALY: Acromegaly is a disorder characterized by progressive enlargement of the head, face, hands, feet and thorax due to excess secretion of growth hormone. ... usually due to an overactive pituitary gland, which excretes abnormally large amounts of growth hormone. This condition can be due to a tumor on the pituitary gland. At first the symptoms are subtle and can take eight years to diagnose (blood tests confirm the diagnosis).
ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT: See "AC Joint".
ACROMION: The lateral projection of the spine of the scapula ... highest and outermost projection of the shoulder.
ACRONYX: Ingrown nail.
ACRYLIC WRAP: Bandage.
ACTINIC KERATOSIS: A lesion which resembles a wart and is considered to be premalignant. It occurs in elderly, light skinned people on areas of the skin, which have been exposed to the sun (face and hands). A cutaneous horn sometimes develops. Squamous (scaly) cell carcinoma may result when left untreated. Synonyms are: senile keratoderma, senile keratoma, senile keratosis, keratosis senilis, senile wart, solar keratosis, verruca plana senilis, and verruca senilis.
ACUTE: Referring to a severe but short-lived course of an illness.
AD-: A prefix (word part) meaning "toward" or "cling together".
A.D.: Abbreviation for "right ear".
ADDENDUM: Something added.
ADDISON'S DISEASE: Chronic adrenocortical (hormone) insufficiency. It is caused by an adrenal cortex, which is under active. It is usually fatal if left untreated. Symptoms include low blood sugar, low blood pressure and low body temperature.
ADDUCT: Movement toward the midline of the body.
ADDUCTOR: A muscle that moves a part toward the midline.
ADEN / O: A combining work form which means "gland".
ADEN FEVER: Also called ... "dengue", "bouquet fever", breakbone fever", "dandy fever", "date fever", "dengue fever", "exanthesis arthrosia", "polka fever", "scarlatina rheumatica", "solar fever". A viral disease which exists in tropical and subtropical areas of the world ... transmitted by mosquitoes. Grade I symptoms are fever and general constitutional problems. Grade II symptoms are the same as Grade I but with spontaneous bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract, gums and skin. Grade III symptoms are the same as the first two but with circulatory failure added. Grade IV symptoms add to the first three profound shock.
ADENITIS: Inflammation of a lymph node or gland.
ADENOCARCINOMA: Kidney cancer ... few early warning symptoms. Symptoms include blood in the urine, a feeling of pain in the side, fever, weight loss and anemia. Surgery is the treatment of choice in the year 2000 due to the fact that this type of cancer does not respond well to chemotherapy.
ADENODYNIA: Gland pain.
ADENOMA SEBACUEM: A tumor like nodule, which occurs on the face and is, made up of tissue, which is both vascular and fibrous and takes the appearance of small, red or yellow elevations of the skin.
ADENOMATOUS: Pertaining to adenoma (benign neoplasm/tumor).
ADENOPATHY: Growth of any gland, especially the lymph.
ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE: An energy storage molecule.
ADENOSIS: A condition of a diseased gland.
ADENOVIRUS E1 PROTEINS: Gene products (proteins), which are produced following an infection with adenovirus. E1 refers to a region of the genome, which is subdivided into E1A and E1B (adenovirus E1A proteins and adenovirus E1B proteins).
ADENOVIRUS E2 PROTEINS: Gene products (proteins) that are produced following an infection with adenovirus. E2 refers to a region of the genome. Note that several of these proteins are required for virus multiplication.
ADENOVIRUS E3 PROTEINS: Gene products (proteins) which are produced from the E3 region of the adenovirus. These proteins are no necessary for virus multiplication. It has been found that the E3 19K protein assists in reducing class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of cells.
ADENOVIRUS E4 PROTEINS: Gene products (proteins) which are transferred from the E4 region of adenovirus.
ADENOVIRUS INFECTIONS, HUMAN: An infection that targets the respiratory system and conjunctivae. Currently (year 2001) there are 33 types of adenovirus which have been identified).
ADJUVANT: An herb that is combined with another primary ingredient to increase the effect of that ingredient.
ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC: A substance that typically boosts the response of the immune system at the cellular or humoral level. ... typical substances are Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum.
ADJUVANT THERAPY: The combining of therapies (typically medications, radiation, surgery) to improve their effectiveness..
ADMINISTRATION: The method by which a medication is introduced into the body ... for example: via patch, rectal, oral, intravenous.
ADH: Abbreviation for "antidiuretic hormone". It is secreted by the pituitary gland of the brain and inhibits the production of urine ... it adjusts the fluid level of the body.
ADHESION: Scar that binds two surfaces ... the growing together of body tissue.
ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS: Also called "frozen shoulder". It is an inflamed capsule of the shoulder that develops scar tissue, which limits movement to lock the shoulder in place. Causes include diabetes and trauma (injury) and unknown etiology (causes). Treatment includes cortisone injections, anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy. Also, surgery to snip away the scar tissue can be performed.
ADI: Abbreviation for "Allowable Daily Intake".
ADIPOSE: Fat cell contained in adipose tissue.
ADIPOSE TISSUE: Fatty tissue found beneath skin and around many body organs.
ADNEXA: Appendages or adjunct parts; often referred to in abdominal exams i.e. the ovaries are adnexa of the uterus.
ADP: Abbreviation for ... 1) "advanced pancreatitis" 2) "adenosine diphosphate".
ADRENAL: A gland near (above) the kidney. It is made of two parts, the cortex and medulla. The cortex produces cortisone and the medulla secretes adrenaline. The adrenal gland also produces the hormone aldosterone, which regulates blood potassium.
ADRENAL CORTEX: Center of the adrenal gland.
ADRENALINE: Hormone produced by the adrenal glands.
ADRENERGIC: Nerves which release epinephrine type substances.
ADSON: Fine-toothed forceps.
ADTORSION: The turning inward of the eyes.
ADVENTITIOUS: Occurring accidentally. Arising from an external source or occurring in an unusual manner.
ADVENTITIOUS SOUNDS: Rales, rhonchi, rubs.
ADVERSE EXPERIENCE: A negative reaction to a current treatment. For example, a life threatening experience (and even death) is considered to be an "adverse experience".
AED: Abbreviation for "automated external defibrillator".
AERATION: The process which occurs in the lungs of giving off carbon dioxide and absorbing oxygen.
AEROPHAGIA: Swallowing of air.
AEROSOLIZED: A method of administering drugs by inhalation. The medication is turned into a fine mist using a nebulizer.
AFB: Abbreviation for "Aspirated Foreign Body".
AFEBRILE: The way in which a person's feelings are shown.
AFFECTIVE DISORDER: Mental disorder in which a persons experiences abnormal mood swings ... manic-depressive disorders are included in this category.
AFFERENT: Conducting towards a center point.
AFP: Abbreviation for "fetoprotein". A test that measures the amount of fetoprotein in blood serum.
AGALACTIA: Absence of milk.
AGAMMAGLOBULINAEMIA: Immune system deficiency.
AGENESIS: Failure to develop.
AGENT: Something capable of causing a reaction in the body.
AGE SPOTS: Dark, pigmented, spots (evenly colored) which occurs in people aged around 50 and over. Also called "liver spots", "lentigo senilis".
AGGLUTINATE: A sticking of cells to one another. Some types of bacteria and viruses can cause blood cells to agglutinate. Also, some foods can cause the process to occur in specific blood types (particularly food lectins).
AGGLUTININ: An antibody (protein molecule which neutralizes foreign substances like invading organisms) that results in a clumping of bacteria (and other cells).
AGGREGRATE: Crowding or clustering together.
AGGREGATE GLANDS: Closely packed lymphoid follicles, which make up small elevations in the small intestines. Also called ... aggregate glands, aggregated lymphatic follicles, aggregated lymphatic nodules, agmen peyerianum, agminate glands, aginated glands, Peyer's glands, and Peyer's patches.
AGGREGATED LYMPHATIC FOLLICLES: Closely packed lymphoid follicles, which make up small elevations in the small intestines. Also called ... aggregate glands, aggregated lymphatic nodules, agmen peyerianum, agminate glands, aginated glands, Peyer's glands, Peyer's patches.
AGITATION: Restless.
AGLUTITION: Difficulty in swallowing.
AGNAIL: Hangnail.
AGONAL: Refers to the moments just prior to death.
AGORAPHOBIA: Fear of crowds. It can cause a panic attack in the sufferer when confronted with the thought that the s (he) might venture into a crowd (supermarket / department stores).
AGORAPHOBIC: Displaying symptoms of "agoraphobia".
AGNOGENIC: Of unknown cause.
AICD: Abbreviation for "Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator".
AIDS: Abbreviation for "Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome". The T?helper cells (a type of T?lymphocyte) are the primary cells infected by the HIV virus, which greatly diminishes the ability of the body to defend itself. Often, people infected with the virus do not know it. Sometimes it exhibits itself with flu?like symptoms 2?4 weeks following exposure. Afterwards, it normally takes 2?5 years before symptoms manifest. Often the first symptoms are variable and intermittent like diarrhea, fever, loss of appetite, fatigue, inflamed gums, night sweats, swollen lymph nodes, mouth sores, enlarged liver, enlarged spleen,
AIH: Abbreviation for ... "autoimmune hepatitis".
AILD: Abbreviation for ... "angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia". A disorder that occurs mainly in older adults and can culminate in death. The disorder is characterized by enlarged lymph nodes, fever, sweats, weight loss, rashes, skin lesions, spleen and liver enlargement, the duplicity of small blood vessels and immunoblasts.
AIR CAST: ... is a fracture brace.
AIR EMBOLISM: Air bubbles in an artery which blocks normal blood flow ... sometimes caused by surgery or injury.
AIRPLANE ARM SPLINT: A device used to immobilize the arm to allow healing.
AKA: Abbreviation for "Above the Knee Amputation".
AKATHISIA: A disorder marked by an inability to remain seated.
-AL: A suffix which means ... "postnatal".
ALA: A wing like or expanded structure.
ALAGILLE SYNDROME: Tissue which has not completely developed in the hepatic ducts. Also, refers to other congenital malformations such as pulmonary artery stenosis, facial abnormalities. It typically manifests itself as jaundice in the neonatal period.
ALAI NASI: Openings of the nostrils.
ALALIA: Impairment of speech.
ALANINE: Also called ... "alpha-aminopropanoic acid". It is an amino acid that occurs in proteins and is considered to be nonessential. It is synthesized from pyruvate ... free plasma contains high levels. It assists in the metabolism of organic acids and sugars. It is an energy source for the brain, nervous system and muscle tissue. It also contributes to a strong immune system by assisting in the manufacture of antibodies.
ALAR: 1) relating to a wing. 2) axillary.
ALBINO: Lack of skin pigmentation which causes the hair and skin to appear white and the eyes to be pink.
ALBUMEN: Protein.
ALBUMIN: Water soluble blood protein. Decreased amounts are seen in states of malabsorption, malnutrition, liver disease, many gastrointestinal conditions, kidney problems, burns, cancer chemotherapy, thyrotoxicosis, Cushing's disease, hypoproteinemia.
ALBUMINOID: Also called ... glutinoid and scleroprotein. It is a simple protein that resembles albumin. It is present in cartilaginous and horny tissue and in the lens of the eye (elasin, collagen, keratin).
ALBUMINOID LIVER: A degeneration of the protein "albumin" in the liver.
ALBUTEROL UPDRAFT: An inhaler that contains the drug "Albuterol".
ALDOSTERONE: A body hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is known to regulate high blood pressure and regulate blood potassium levels.
ALDOSTERONISM: A condition of high blood pressure which is caused by the over production of aldosterone by the adrenal glands. Sufferers must battle not only the high blood pressure but also low blood potassium, which cause weakness of muscles, headaches, and thirst. The cause is most often a non-cancerous tumor of the adrenal gland. Drugs used to treat this affliction in the year 2000 include spironolactone, amiloride and triamterene.
ALEXIA: Inability to read.
ALF DISEASE: Abbreviation for "acute liver failure".
ALG: Abbreviation for ... "Antilymphocyte globulin".
ALGESIA: Sensitivity to painful stimuli.
-ALGIA: A suffix which means ... "pain".
ALGIN: A carbohydrate derived from seaweed. It provides protection from many types of carcinogens, pollutants and other poisons. It is also said to block the absorption of radioactive materials into living tissue. Also, it is said to normalize bowel abnormalities.
ALGOPHOBIA: Abnormal fear of pain.
ALIENIST: Psychiatrist.
ALIMENT: Pertaining to food ... (alimentary canal).
ALIMENTARY CANAL: The path of the digestive system consisting of the esophagus, stomach and intestines.
ALIMENTATION: Process of nutrition.
ALKALI: The opposite of acid ... a base substance. They turn litmus paper blue. Examples of alkalis include ammonia, lye and potash.
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE: When an increase of these enzymes occurs in serum (the clear fluid portion of blood) it may be attributed to ... hyperparathyroidism, hepatobiliary diseases, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, osteomalacia, and neoplasm. Decreased levels of alkaline phosphatase has been observed in patients with hypothyroidism, radioactive materials deposited in bones, scurvy, increased activity of the cells which produce bone.
ALKALOIDS: Compounds which naturally occur in seed plants and contain nitrogen.
ALKALOSIS: A condition where the body is too alkaline. The opposite of "acidosis". Alkalosis: can be caused by high altitudes, hyperventilation, and excessive vomiting.
ALKSLODID: A disorder of body fluids and tissues in which there is too much alkali.
ALLELES: A series of different (alternative) genes which may occur at a specific chromosomal locus, in human beings there is one of two alleles on each chromosome having the same relative position.
ALLERGEN: Something which causes an allergic reaction.
ALLOCATION RATIO: A term used in the medical industry to indicate the portions of treatments ... as an example, 1:1 means "equal allocation" and 3:1 is 75 percent in one group and 25 percent in the other.
ALLOGENIC: A term used in the field of organ transplants. It refers to the makeup of genes within the same species.
ALLOPATHY: A treatment for diseases which includes the use of medications to produce effects which are opposite to those being experienced by the patient.
ALLOTROPHIC: Having altered nutritional value.
ALOC: Abbreviation for ... "Acute Loss Of Consciousness".
ALOPECIA: Partial or complete loss of hair often occurring with age.
ALOPECIA AREATA: An autoimmune disease in which hair falls out in clumps resulting in oval bald spots. Due to unknown reasons the immune system attacks hair follicles.
ALPHA BLOCKER: Typically used to lower blood pressure by making arteries more open and relaxed. A substance that blocks response to impulses at the alpha-receptor site of a neurotransmitter or hormone.
ALPHA CAROTENE: One of the carotenoids found in carrots, sweet potatoes and some other vegetables. Its ability to covert to vitamin A is less pronounced than beta-carotene.
ALPHA FETOPROTEIN: Fetal protein.
ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL: The only type of vitamin E that the human blood can maintain and transfer to cells when needed.
ALS: Abbreviation for "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis" or "Lou Gehrig's disease. It attacks the nerves of the spinal cord and brain that are involved with muscle action. Sufferers become trapped in a body that is immobilized. Even swallowing and breathing become difficult. In the year 2000 the only drug approved for use in the U.S. is Rilutek, which can prolong life but is not a cure. The ALS association can be contacted at 1-800-782-4747 (year 2000).
ALT: Abbreviation for "alanine aminotransferase".
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE: Healing therapies not taught in medical schools or used in hospitals.
ALUMIFOAM SPLINT: A splint made from aluminum and foam.
ALVIOLI: The small air sacs at the bronchioles of the lungs.
ALVEOLUS: A saclike dilatation.
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: Symptoms include difficulty with language, difficulty expressing themselves, difficulty with understanding others. Also, Alzheimer victims have difficulty when asked to draw pictures. Personality changes are typical with sufferers sometimes becoming aggressive or agitated. Finally, memory lapses are probably the primary symptom with patients unable to recognize friends and family members. Drugs used in 1999 to help include Cognex (tacrine), Aricept (donepezil). A new drug to the U.S. (not the world) is Rivastigmine. Estrogen, Vitamin E, Indomethacin, Ibuprofen, Naproxen may also be of benefit.
AMA: Abbreviation meaning "against medical advice".
AMALGAM: An alloy which combines a metal (element) with mercury.
AMAUROSIS: Blindness.
AMAUROSIS FUGAX: Temporary blindness.
AMBI-: A prefix (word part) meaning "both sides".
AMBIBILATERAL: To affect both sides.
AMBLYOPIA: Decrease of visual acuity.
AMBULATORY: Able to walk.
AMEBIC ABSCESS: An abscess, which usually occurs in the liver or brain (sometimes other organs) and is caused by an amoeba ... results in death of tissue.
AMENORRHEA: Cessation of normal menstruation.
AMIBIASIS: An infection by an ameba (typically Entamoeba histolytica) that results in dehydration.
AMINE: An organic compound which contains nitrogen.
AMINO ACID: The building blocks which proteins consist of. Amino acids that are associated with diet are categorized as "essential" and "nonessential". The following are classified as essential because they are not produced by the body and must be obtained from the diet ... histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, valine. Nonessential amino acids are necessary for good health but can be produced internally from the "essential" amino acids, they include: ... Arginine, ornithine, systeine, cystine, taurine, tyrosine. There are 22 known amino acids (8 essential and 14 nonessential).
AMINOGLYCOSIDES: Currently being researched.
AMMONIA: Alkaline gas produced by the body from protein metabolism. It is changed into urea in the liver and removed from the body via the kidney.
AMNESIA: Loss of memory.
AMNESTIC: Amnesia.
AMNIOCENTESIS: A removal of fluid from the uterus through the "amnion" (inner membrane which surrounds the embryo and contains ambionic fluid). The procedure is performed to determine if the baby has abnormalities.
AMNION: The inner membrane that surrounds the embryo and contains the ambionic fluid.
AMNIOTIC FLUID: The fluid which encompasses the fetus until birth.
AMORPHOUS: The quality of being shapeless.
AMPHETAMINES: Medications which stimulate the CNS (central nervous system to produce a state of well-being, confidence and alertness.
AMPULA OF VATER: The area where the common bile duct (vessel which carries digestive fluids from the liver to the small intestines) and the pancreatic duct drain into the duodenum (first section of the small intestines measuring approximately 10 inches in length).
AMPULE: A container for hypodermic solutions.
AMPULLA: A rounded, saclike opening of a canal, duct or tube.
AMPULLA HEPATOPANCREATICA: The enlarged area in the small, nipple-like process of the initial area of the intestines, which receives the main pancreatic duct and the common bile, duct.
AMYASTHENIC: Weakness of muscle.
AMYLASE: Enzyme manufactured by the salivary glands and pancreas. An elevated blood amylase level is associated with pancreatitis.
AMYLASE ENZYME TEST: Test for pancreatitis.
AMYLOID: A protein ... starch like.
AMYLOID LIVER: A degeneration of the starch like protein "amyloid" within the liver.
AMYLOIDOSIS: A group of illnesses that cause organs and tissues to become infiltrated with the protein "amyloid". Symptoms may vary depending on what organ is targeted. If the heart is targeted then symptoms include irregular heartbeats and possible heart failure. If the kidneys are involved then kidney failure may result. If the tongue is targeted it increases in size.
AMYOSTHENIA: A reduction or lack of muscle power.
AMYOTROPHIC: Relating to muscular atrophy.
AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS: ... or "Lou Gehrig's disease. It attacks the nerves of the spinal cord and brain that are involved with muscle action.
AMYXIA: Lack of mucus.
AN-: A prefix (word part) meaning "not" or "without".
ANA: Abbreviation for "antinuclear antibody" (gamma globulin) which is detected by blood tests. Positive results are sometimes associated with lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma as well as other diseases, which affect joints, skin and organs. It is noted that some people test positive for ANA's but do not exhibit any symptoms of sickness at all.
ANABOLIC PROCESS: The process of converting small molecules into larger ones.
ANABOLIC STEROID: A drug which is like testosterone ... it builds muscles and strengthens bones. Known to have side effects. Examples include methyltestosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and stanozolol.
ANADIPSIA: Extreme thirst.
ANALAGOUS: Similar.
ANAL FISSURE: Small tears in the rectal lining. Constipation is a primary cause. Sometimes they can he healed by soaking in warm water. Vitroglycerine paste can also work. The idea is to relax spastic rectal muscles that cause the rectal lining to stretch thus stimulating blood flow to the area.
ANALGESIC: A drug that relieves pain without reducing consciousness. Many analgesics cause nausea, constipation and stomach upset.
ANAMNESIS: The history of a patient.
ANAPHRODISIAC: A drug that decreases the desire for sex.
ANAPHYLACTIC: A great sensitivity to something.
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK: An allergic reaction which results in low blood pressure and difficulty in breathing ... may be life threatening.
ANAPHYLAXIS: Severe reaction to a substance causing itching, hives, wheezing, nasal congestion. Symptoms develop within seconds/minutes and are a medical emergency.
ANAPLASIA: A situation in which tumor cells become unable of performing their original, specific functions.
ANAPLASTIC THYROID CANCER: Grows quickly and spreads throughout the body. Death usually occurs within six months to a year following the diagnosis.
ANASARCA: Fluid which collects in subcutaneous tissue (connective).
ANASTOMOSIS: A combining of two hollow tube like structures. Often a connection occurring between two vessels.
ANASTOMOTIC: Pertaining to "anastomosis".
ANA TITERS: Test designed to evaluate the immune system and detect "antinuclear antibodies" which are sometimes present in people with autoimmune diseases.
ANATOMICAL SNUFFBOX: A hollow area which is located on the wrist (on the side facing the radius - bone of the forearm).
ANCA: Abbreviation for "antineutrophil cytoplasmic".
ANCONAL: Referring to the elbow.
ANDROSTERONE: Male sex hormone.
ANDROGEN: Male hormones. Typically a generic term for a hormone such as androsterone, DHEA, fluxymesterone, methyltersosterone or testosterone, which causes development of male sex characteristics.
ANEMIA: A situation in which the patient has a decrease in the amount of red blood cells in the blood. Symptoms often include lethargy, shortness of breath, weakness, palpitations of the heart, soft systolic murmurs, and skin pallor. There are many types and causes ... iron deficiency, vitamin B-12 deficiency. All the causes could fill a book.
ANEMIA, APLASTIC: A condition where bone marrow fails to manufacture enough blood cells.
ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC: A condition where the body is unable to manufacture new blood cells fast enough to replace old ones due to a shortened life span of red blood cells.
ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS: Anemia caused by a decreased supply of vitamin B-12 ... red blood cells decrease and nerves disintegrate. ANEPIA: Being unable to speak.
ANERGY: Lacking the ability to produce a sensitivity reaction to substances expected to be antigenic (immunogenic, allergenic). 2.Decreased energy level.
ANESTHESIA, GENERAL: Gases used as a general anesthetic i.e., alfentanil, amobarbital, butabarbital, butorphanol, chloral hydrate, enflurane, etomidate, fentanyl, halothane, hydroxyzine, isoflurane, ketamine, levorphanol, meperidine, methohexital, methoxyflurane, nitrous ketamine, methohexital, methoxyflurane, midazolam, morphine parenteral, nalbuphine, nitrous oxide, oxymorphone, pentobarbital, pentazocine, phenobarbital, promethazine, propiomazine, propofol, scopolamine, secobarbital, sufentanil, tentanyl, thiamyial, thiopental.
ANESTHESIOLOGIST: Medical health professional who induces unconsciousness in patients. They also administer drugs to paralyze muscles to allow a surgeon to easily operate on areas of the body.
ANESTHETIC: A drug which suspends pain sensation.
ANEURYSM: A protrusion (bulge) of a weak spot of a blood vessel ... a balloon like structure filled with blood. It is often caused by hypertension or atherosclerosis. Aneurysms form due to artery hardening (loss of elasticity), high blood pressure (among other reasons). High blood cholesterol levels and diabetes are often contributing factors. A typical site for anurysms is the aorta of the heart. Note that 80% of ruptured aneurysms are fatal. Doctors can hear an identifying sound using a stethoscope. Ultrasound imaging can identify aneurysms with high precision Also see "brain aneurysm".
ANGI / O: A combining "word form" which means "vessel".
ANGIITIS: Inflammation of a blood vessel or a lymphatic vessel.
ANGINA: Chest pain on physical exertion. Doctors rate the intensity of chest pain on a scale of one to four.
ANGINA PECTORIS: A pain that is often described as "choking", "suffocating" ... it is a pain, which occurs in the thorax and sometimes, radiates into the arms (more often the left). It is usually caused by poor blood supply to the middle layer of the heart i.e., the cardiac muscle and is a sign that heart arteries are clogged. This pain usually occurs during exertion but in older people breathlessness and fatigue may result instead of pain.
ANGIECTASIS: The stretching of a blood vessel.
ANGIECTOMY: The surgical removal of a vessel.
ANGIOCATHETER: i.e. 20-gauge.
ANGIODYSPLASIA: Blood vessels of the gastrointestinal tract that have become enlarged.
ANGIOEDEMA: Swelling of the lips.
ANGIOFOLLICULAR LYMPH NODE HYPERPLASIA: Also called "Castleman's disease". A rare disease of lymph tissue (lymph nodes & lymphocytes). The disease can come in early or later life. In early life it typically affects a single group of nodes. While in later life, it may affect many groups of nodes. Sometimes it affects a related group of nodes which in turn causes symptoms to adjacent body parts ... a cough might develop due to lymph nodes of the chest pressing on the breathing tubes. The serious form of the disease is treated (year 2000) using a combination of chemotherapy and drugs of the cortisone family.
ANGIOGENESIS: The new formation of blood vessels ... tumors require angiogenesis to survive.
ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS: Drugs that starve tumors by destroying the blood vessels that feed them.
ANGIOGRAM: An x-ray test to determine whether the blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood to the heart are blocked.
ANGIOGRAPHER: An interpreter of angiograms.
ANGIOGRAPHY: The x-ray visualization of blood vessels. A dye is usually injected into the patient to enhance the image. Typically this test is used to detect bleeding in the GI (gastrointestinal tract).
ANGIOIMMUNOBLASTIC LYMPHADENOPATHY WITH DYSPROTEINEMIA: Also called ... "AILD" ... "immunoblastic lymphadenopathy". A disorder that occurs mainly in older adults and can culminate in death. The disorder is characterized by enlarged lymph nodes, fever, sweats, weight loss, rashes, skin lesions, spleen and liver enlargement, the duplicity of small blood vessels and immunoblasts.
ANGIOMA: A swelling (tumor) due to proliferation of blood vessels or lymphatics.
ANGIOMATA: See "angioma".
ANGIOPLASTY: A procedure that uses a tiny balloon at the end of a plastic tube to open narrowed (clogged) arteries in the heart.
ANGIOSARCOMA: A type of cancer that typically affects the liver ... this rare and malignant tumor is produced from the cells that line blood vessels.
ANGIOSTENOSIS: Vessel constriction (narrowing).
ANGIOTENSIN I: Produced by splitting the large blood protein Angiotensinogen. The split is caused by renin (produced by the kidneys).
ANGIOTENSIN II: A substance produced by the body which activates the tiny muscles which surround arteries.
ANGIOTENSINOGIN: A large blood protein ... a serum produced by the liver and results in the production of andiotensis I.
ANGITIS: Vessel inflammation.
ANGULATION: Abnormal angle or bend in an organ.
ANHEDONIA: Psych term. Incapability of receiving pleasure.
ANHEMATOSIS: Abnormal formation of blood.
ANICTERIC: Absence of a yellow discoloring of the skin and eyes; not yellow; see ICTERUS.
ANIHIDROSIS: The lack of sweating.
ANILINE: A poison which is basic constituent of the analgesic / antipyretic drugs phenacetin and acetanilid.
ANIOCYTOSIS: Variable size of red blood cells which normally are uniform.
ANION: A negative ion.
ANION GAP: The difference between the sum of the measured cations and anions in the plasma or serum; elevated levels are seen in diabetes or lactic acidosis. Uremia, diabetic ketoacidosis, shock, methanol poisoning, diuretics, and penicillin may cause an increase in the blood serum.
ANISOCORIA: A situation in which the pupils of the eyes are not equivalent.
ANISOCYTOSIS: Normally uniform cells that are varying in size i.e. red blood cells.
ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS: A type of arthritis which targets the spine and sacroiliac joint ... 90% of people with the disease carry the HLA?B27 gene. Men are three times more likely to contract the disease over women. It happens when bone tissue replaces joint ligaments to become locked in a bent position. It normally starts in the lower back and progresses up the spine. Often the patient is left in a bent position as though s(he) was picking something up off the floor. Treatment at early stages would include back exercises to prevent the back from locking up. Anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the process of the disease (Indomethacin, Naproxen, Diclofenac).
ANKYLOSIS: Joint rigidity due to diseases or surgeries.
ANODMIA: Lack of smell.
ANODYNE: A substance that decreases pain.
ANOMALOUS: Deviating from the norm, contradictory, inconsistent.
ANOREXIA: Eating disorder that includes a fear of food and a horror at the thought of eating.
ANOSCOPE: A device used to examine the anus.
ANOSCOPY: Visual examination of the lower rectum and anus.
ANOSMIA: An absence of smell.
ANOSTOSIS: Abnormal bone formation.
ANOXEMIA: A lowering of oxygen contained in the blood.
ANOXIA: Deficiency of oxygen.
ANSERINE: Having the look or characteristic of a "goose".
ANERSINE BURSITIS: ... of the knee.
ANTAGONISM: Denoting opposition.
ANTALGIC: Analgesic.
ANTE-: A prefix (word part) meaning "before".
ANTEBRACHIUM: Forearm.
ANTECUBITAL: In front of the elbow.
ANTEFEBRILE: Prior to the onset of a fever.
ANTENATAL: Prior to birth.
ANTEPARTUM: Before birth.
ANTERIOR: A term used to denote the front of the body ... before.
ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: A strong cord that extends from the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (lower leg bone) to stabilize the knee. People who suffer from an injury to this cord often say they felt a pop that was then followed by swelling due to fluid buildup. Crutches are required. When the ligament is completely torn, surgery and a long recovery time (6 months) is usually the remedy.
ANTEROLATERAL: In front and away from the middle line.
ANTEROPOSTERIOR: Abbreviated "AP". An anatomical position having the patient in a position where the back is parallel to the film.
ANTEVERSION: The condition of an organ (usually the womb) that is abnormally tilted foreword.
ANTEVERTED: The condition of an organ that is abnormally tilted foreword.
ANTHELMINTIC: Medications which eliminate worms from the body.
ANTHRACOSIS: Lung inflammation due to breathing carbon dust.
ANTHRAX: Infection with this germ is rare ... those most at risk are butchers and people who skin animals. It is mainly a skin ulcer accompanied by enlarged lymph nodes ... antibiotics are usually successful treatments. Warfare anthrax is almost 100% fatal. It is spread by showering anthrax spores (which are fetal anthrax germs) in an area. When breathed they cause a fatal pneumonia. A vaccine does exist.
ANTI-: A prefix (word part) meaning "against".
ANTIBIOSIS: An association between two organisms which is detrimental to one of them.
ANTIBIOTIC: Substance that destroys or decreases the growth of bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Typically prepared from mold-like organisms. Antibiotics are classified as either bacteriostatic (destruction of the bacteria) or bactericidal (slows bacterial growth). A problem that can occur through the use of antibiotics is ... infection (caused by upsetting the balance of normally benign body bacteria to cause infections). Another drawback is the amount of people who are allergic to them. Most oral antibiotics work best if taken on an empty stomach.
ANTIBODY: Produced by the immune system, it is a protein molecule that neutralizes foreign substances like invading organisms.
ANTICHOLINERGICS: Medications which: 1. Alleviate muscle spasms of the intestines, 2. Affects nerve cells or nerve fibers (drugs used for anxiety, nervousness and depression).
ANTICOAGULANTS: Medications which lessen the ability of blood to clot.
ANTICOAGULATION: Blood-thinning. Typically used to treat embolism or thrombosis.
ANTIEMETIC: Refers to a drug or treatment that prevents or relieves nausea and vomiting.
ANTIGEN: A substance that causes the body to manufacture antibodies.
ANTIGENEMIA: Detectable antigens in blood.
ANTIGENIC DRIFT: The process by which a virus will mutate to prevent destruction by the immune system.
ANTI-HAA: Abbreviation for ... "antibody to hepatitis antigen".
ANTI-HAV: Abbreviation for ... "antibody to the hepatitis A virus".
ANTI-HBc: Antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen. It is produced prior to and following an HBV infection
ANTI-HBe: Abbreviation for ... "antibody to the hepatitis B e Antigen".
ANTI-HBs: Abbreviation for ... "antibody to the Hepatitis B surface antigen". Note that the presence of these antibodies indicates previous exposure to HBV, which has been cleared from the body.
vANTI-HBsAg: Antibody to the hepatitis B virus.
ANTI-HCV: Abbreviation for ... "antibody to the hepatitis C virus".
ANTI-HDV: Abbreviation for ... "antibody to the hepatitis D virus"
ANTHELMINTIC: A medication used to destroy parasitic intestinal worms.
ANTIHISTAMINE: A substance that blocks the actions of histamines in body tissues ... used in the treatment of allergies.
ANTIHYPERTENSIVE: An agent which decreases high blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels to allow easier flowing of blood.
ANTIOXIDANT: A substance which neutralizes oxidative reactions in the body which destroys healthy molecules to contribute to aging and the formation of diseases. There are many antioxidant substances like melatonin, selenium, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, germanium, coenzyme Q10 and many others.
ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODY SYNDROME: A situation in which the body makes antibodies against the outer membranes (phospholipids) of body cells.
ANTIPRURITIC: An agent which alleviates itching.
vANTIPYRETIC: That which causes the reduction of fever.
ANTIRETROVIRAL: An agent which impedes or destroys a retrovirus.
ANTISEPTIC: Substances used on the skin which retards the growth of germs.
ANTISPASMODIC: Medications commonly used to deter muscle spasms and/or convulsions.
ANTI-TGF-B: Injections of this protein eliminated painful joint swelling in 75% of patients in a laboratory study. The protein eliminates TGF-B, which is a chemical produced by the body due to infections (causes inflammation to trigger swelling in the hands and feet).
ANTI-TOXIN: A blood substance that counteracts germ poisons.
ANTITRYPSIN: Something which interferes with trypsin (an enzyme produced in the intestines.
ANTITUSSIVE: Relieving cough.
ANTIXEROTIC: That which prevents dryness.
ANTRECTOMY: The surgical removal of an area of the stomach which manufactures hormones which cause the secretion of acids.
ANTROTOMY: A surgical cut through the wall of any nearly closed cavity ... in particular those with bony walls.
ANTRUM: A nearly closed body cavity.
ANTRUM CARDIACUM: The duct which connects the stomach and esophagus.
ANTRUM OF HIGHMORE: Another term for ... "maxillary sinuses".
ANURIA: Lack of urination.
ANUS: Body opening that leads to the bowels.
ANUSITIS: Inflamed area within the anus. Multiple tiny cracks develop into itching and burning sensations within and without the anus.
ANVIL: A tiny bone in the middle ear sandwiched between the hammer and stirrup.
ANXIOLYTIC: A sedative used to treat episodes of anxiety.
AO FLEXIBLE REAMER: Surgical instrument / aid.
A&O: Abbreviation for "alert and oriented".
AORTA: top, end or tip.
APGAR SCORE: Evaluation of newborn infants physical status. The score is a sum of points based on color, heart rate, color, reflex, and respirations.
APHAGIA: Unable to swallow.
APHASIA: Impairment or absence of communication by speech. Typically due to a stroke or trauma to the speech-recognition region of the brain's left hemisphere. Often, other people's words are little more than gibberish to aphasics but they seem to have an uncanny ability to detect when people are lying.
APHONIA: Inability to talk.
APHRODISIAC: An agent which causes sexual excitement.
APHTHA: A spot white in color ... a small ulcer on a mucous membrane.
APLASIA: The incomplete growth of an organ or tissue.
APTHAE: Plural of "aptha" (ulcer on a mucous membrane)
APHTHOUS: Referring to "apthae" (ulcers on a mucous membrane).
APHTHOUS STOMATITIS: Canker sores in the mouth and on the lips.
APICAL: Located at or referring to the apex.
APLASTIC ANEMIA: A large reduction in the quantity of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
APNEA: Inability to breath for short periods of time.
APOFERRITIN: Protein which stores iron in the cells of the liver (and other body cells) by uniting with iron to produce ferritin.
APOGEE: Being in the most severe stage of a disease.
AP: Abbreviation for "anteroposterior projection". It is an anatomical position in which the patient is standing up with the back parallel to the film.
APICOECTOMY: A small opening in the gums is made to obtain access to the root of a tooth. The area of bone and roots is cleaned and explored. Subsequently, the tip of the root is excised and a patch is placed (retrograde filling). Finally, sutures (stitches) are placed.. Due to its tricky nature, a specialist is normally required for this procedure.
AP MOLD: Referred to in a report concerning a leg fracture.
APNEA: The cessation of breathing.
APNEIC: See "apnea".
APONEUROSIS: A sheet of tendon or fiber, which attaches to muscular fibers.
APOPHYSIS: Usually refers to an outgrowth from a bone.
APOPLEXY: Another term for "stroke". It results from a deficiency of blood to the brain.
APORTAL VEIN: A vein that delivers blood to the liver from most abdominal organs.
APOTHECARY: Pharmacist.
APS: Abbreviation for "antiphospholipid antibody syndrome".
APPENDECTOMY: To surgically remove the veriform appendix.
APPENDICEAL: Referring to an appendix.
APPENDICITIS: The condition of having a swollen appendix. This can be due to an internal blockage (caused by a piece on undigested food) which impedes it's blood supply. Ultimately the inflamed appendix bursts to release intestinal bacteria into the abdominal cavity. Removal is the cure and can be done by laparoscopic methods in which a small incision of the abdomen is made to allow the insertion of a small cutting tool and camera. Diagnosis can be verified with ultrasound and other types of scans.
APPENDIX: A small, hollow organ that emits antibodies. It is 2-4 inches in length with a diameter that approximates a pencil. Removing the appendix does not appear to compromise a person's health.
APPESTAT: The area of the brain which is known to regulate hunger ... located in the hypothalamus.
APPLANATION: The flattening of the cornea due to pressure.
APPOSITION: The condition of being fitted together.
APPT: Abbreviation for "activated partial thromboplastin time".
APHTHA: A small ulcer on a mucous membrane. Plural = aphthae.
APTHOUS STOMATITIS: See "aphtha" and "stomatitis".
ARACHNOID: Denotes the covering of the brain and spinal cord ... the "arachnoidea". It is one of the three meninges that resembles a spider's web.
ARBOVIRUS: Over 500 species of RNA viruses ranging from 40 to 100 nm or more in diameter. There are over 500 species that are further divided into the following families: Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Arenaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Reoviridae. Approximately 100 species can infect man. Usually the diseases produced by these viruses are very mild ... transmitted by arthropods in their saliva.
ARC: Abbreviation for ... "AIDS Related Complex".
ARCUS SENILIS: A cornea having an arch.
ARDS: Abbreviation for ... "Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome"
AREOLA: A small area ... often refers to a pigmented area of the breast.
ARGININE: An amino acid which is categorized as "nonessential". However, it may be essential for people with certain nutritional deficiencies or diseases. It is associated with the following body processes: 1. storage of energy in muscles (creatine synthesis), 2. wound healing, 3. liver regeneration and healing, 4. muscle growth, 5. tissue repair, 6. assists in the removal of body ammonia in urea, 7. improves immunity system in it's responses to bacteria, viruses and tumor cells.
AROGASTRALGIA: Excessive air in the stomach.
ARREST: Stop.
ARRHIGOSIS: A deficient ability to sense cold.
ARRHYTHMIA: Irregular rhythm.
ARTERIAL BLOOD: Bright red blood containing oxygen obtained in the lungs.
ARTERI / O: A combining word-form which means "artery".
ARTERIOGRAPHY: An x-ray procedure that requires that a special dye be injected into the blood vessel to allow detection of diseases of organs or blood vessels.
ARTERIOGRAM: (Angiogram) X-ray films of the arteries of the heart following an injection of dye into them.
ARTERIOLE: A small branch from an artery.
ARTERIOPLASTY: Repair of an artery via surgical intervention.
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS: A circulatory disorder which results in thickening and stiffening of the walls of arteries thus decreasing circulation. Although all arteries in the body can experience this condition, it is the large ones like the aorta, coronary arteries and arteries that lead to the brain, which can lead to the most damage
ARTERITIS: Inflammation involving an artery or arteries.
ARTERY: A blood vessel which leads from the heart carrying blood to organs, tissues and glands of the body. A blocked artery is almost a guarantee for an upcoming heart attack. Treatment may include the placement of a "stent".
ARTHALGIAS: Pains that affect joints.
ARTHRITIDES: Plural of "arthritis".
ARTHRITIS: Inflammation of one or more joints.
ARTHRODESIS: Securing a joint via surgery.
ARTHROPOD(A): A category of living things that includes: crabs, shrimps, crayfish, lobsters, insects, spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, centipedes, millipedes, horseshoe crabs, and others. Arthropoda is the largest category of living organisms, 75% insects (over a million species).
ARTHROPLASTY: Creation of an artificial joint.
ARTHROPYOSIS: Pus within the cavity of a joint.
ARTHROSCLEROSIS: Stiffened joints.
ARTHROSCOPY: A procedure by which an incision(s) is made for the purpose of inserting optical instruments into a joint. The joint can then be "worked" to clean it of debris and smoothed out. The procedure (usually performed on knees and hips) can result in years of relief from pain.
ARTICULAR: Pertaining to a joint.
ARTICULATE: A junction where two or more bones meet.
A.S.: Abbreviation for "left ear".
ASA: Abbreviation for "acetylsalicylic acid". It is an active ingredient of Aspirin and Entrophen. It is used for pain and prevention of heart attack.
ASB: Abbreviation for "anesthesia stand by".
ASCARIASIS: Roundworm invasion of the body.
ASCITES: Also called "dropsy". Effusion and accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity. This occurs when the blood flow through the liver is obstructed. Ascites often occurs with cirrhosis of the liver.
ASCITIC: Refers to ascites (effusion and accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity).
ASCORBIC ACID: The chemical name for Vitamin C.
ASCUS: Abbreviation for "atypical squamoous cells of uncertain significance". These cells are not cancer ... they are often reported from Pap test.
ASD: Abbreviation for "atrioseptal defect".
ASEPSIS: Without infection or materials which can cause infections.
ASEPTIC: Without infection.
ASEPTIC NECROSIS: Death of bone tissue due to an interruption of blood supply to that area. It is often associated with lupus and long-term use of cortisone drugs. The most commonly affected areas are hips and joints.
ASHD: Abbreviation for "Atherosclerotic Heart Disease".
ASHEN:A side facing a given direction.
ASPHYXIA: A cessation of breathing.
ASPIRATE: The substance or material obtained by aspiration.
ASPIRATION: To inhale.
ASPIRATOR: A device used to remove fluids via suction.
ASSAY: 1. Examine. 2. Any test performed for analytical purposes.
AST: Abbreviation for "aspartate aminotransferase".
ASTEROCOCCUS: Also called ... "mycoplasma". A biological classification of anaerobic bacteria. They do not have true cell walls but rather a three-layered membrane. These bacteria are found in humans and animals and can cause disease.
-ASTHENIA: A suffix which means ... "weakness".
ASTERIXIS: Involuntary jerky motions.
ASTHENIC: Being in a state of weakness.
ASTHMA: A chronic lung disease ... sudden narrowing of the airways of the lungs ... corrected with medications. Symptoms include breathlessness, wheezing, chest tightness and/or coughing. In the year 2000 there is no cure but can often be relieved by getting rid of household animals. Relieving an asthma attack in modern society is usually obtained through the use of "puffers" (bronchodilators), which causes the airways to relax. When biopsies are performed on asthmatic patients it is found that virtually all have chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes. This paved the way for modern treatment that includes the use of inhaled anti-inflammatory drugs to treat this root cause. It is noted that frequent use of 'puffers" causes the airways to stop responding to this medication. NOTE: According to Dr. Stephen Paul Shepard - in his book titled "Healing Energies" he states "Vitamin D and calcium were very helpful in controlling asthma".
ASTIGMATISM: A condition which causes a loss of acuity of vision. It is a result of an uneven curvature of the membrane (outer) of the eye,
ASTRINGENT: A substance normally applied topically to cause contraction.
ASYMPTOMATIC: Not symptomatic (showing symptoms of a particular disease).
ASYNERGY: Lacking coordination.
ASYSTOLE: Absence of heartbeat.
ATACTITIA: Lacking the sense of touch.
ATAXIA: A blocked ability to coordinate muscle movements often results in a stumbling gait.
ATELECTASIS: An abnormal collapse of lung tissue.
ATG: Abbreviation for "antihymocyte globulin".
ATHEROSCLEROSIS: The accumulation of fatty deposits in the inner walls of arteries. It is the most common form of "arteriosclerosis".
ATHEROSCLEROTIC HEART DISEASE: A disorder which is caused by the buildup of plaque on vessel walls.
ATHETOID: Unrelenting, continuous motion caused by a type of cystic fibrosis.
ATHLETE'S FOOT: An infection of the foot caused by a fungus. Symptoms include cracking and itching of the skin, which can include blisters.
ATHR / O: A combining word-form that means "joint".
ATLAS: The uppermost vertebra of the spinal column which supports the head.
ATOMIZATION: Turning a liquid into a mist.
ATONIC: Weakness of a muscle.
ATOPIC: A type of allergic response associated hay fever, bronchial asthma or skin problems. It is sometimes acquired following hepatitis or contact with alcohol or other solvents for long periods of time.
ATOPIC DERMATITIS: See "eczema".
ATOPY: Someone who reacts to environmental triggers that do not affect most people. Atopic illnesses include hay fever, asthma and atopic dermatitis.
ATRESIA: Absence of a normal opening or normally patent lumen.
ATRIA: The upper chambers of the heart.
ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: A fairly common, seldom harmful variance in the heart beat (flutter) in which the two upper chambers of the heart quiver instead of beating effectively.
ATRIAL SEPTUM: The muscular wall which divides the upper chambers of the heart (atria).
ATRICHIA: Lack of body hair.
ATRIUM: A term used to designate a chamber ... usually of the heart.
ATROPHIC: Denoting atrophy.
ATROPHIC GASTRITIS: Constant irritation of the lining of the stomach resulting in it's necrosis (wasting away).
ATROPHY: A wasting (decrease in the size) of tissue, organs or cells.
ATTENDING PHYSICIAN: A physician who has completed post graduate education and is currently a member of the hospital faculty. The "attending" is responsible for all patient's whose charts bear his/her name.
ATYPIA: Another word for ... "not typical".
AUDIOGENIC SEIZURE: A seizure that resembles and epileptic attach which commences due to a specific sound (usually high in pitch).
AUDITORY CANAL: Outer area of the ear.
AURA: A visual sensory stimulation which occurs prior to the beginning of a migraine headache or epileptic seizure.
AURAL: Referring to the ear.
AURICLE: The portion of the external ear not contained within the head.
AUROTHERAPY: Treatment which includes the use of gold.
AUSCULTATION: Listening to body sounds with the aid of a stethoscope.
AUSTIN MOORE: Hip prosthesis.
AUTISM: A biological disorder which affects approximately one in 500 children. It inhibits electrical connections in the brain. Symptoms include a failure to use the word "I", lack of conversation, resistance to being held, indifference to pain, lack of interest in others, lack of eye contact with others, obsessive and/or repeated behaviors. In the year 2000 there is no known cure for autism but improvement can be attained at early ages. Autism Research Institute, 4182 Adams Ave, San Diego, California 92116 (WWW.autism.com/ari/).
AUTO-: A prefix (word part) meaning "self".
AUTOCLAVE: Sterilizing device.
AUTOGENUOUS: Produced by the self.
AUTOHYPNOSIS: Referring to self-induced hypnotism.
AUTOLOGOUS TRANSFUSION: A transfusion of one's own blood that had been previously collected and stored.
AUTOLYSIS: The post-mortem (after death) destruction of cells (due to enzymes).
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: A portion of the central nervous system which supplies internal organs ... sympathetic and parasympathetic.
AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT: A gene which (when on a non-sex chromosome) produces a specific effect whenever present.
AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE: A gene which (when on a non-sex chromosome) produces a specific effect only when two copies of it are present.
AUTOSPLENECTOMY: The degradation of the spleen caused by fibrosis and shrinkage ... may occur with sickle cell anemia.
AUXILIARY-LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: A surgical procedure that does not remove the liver, but replaces only a part of it.
AV: Abbreviation for "arteriovenous"; "Atrioventricular".
AVASCULAR: A term which refers to an area of the body that is not receiving sufficient blood.
AVASCULAR NECROSIS: Death of bone tissue due to an interruption of blood supply to that area. It is often associated with lupus and long-term use of cortisone drugs. The most commonly affected areas are hips and joints.
AVNRT: Abbreviation for "Atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia".
AVULSION: Separate by tearing any part of a structure. Full thickness.
AXILLA: Armpit.
AXILLARY: Relating to or located near the axilla.
AXILOFEMORAL: Referring to the femoral and axillary arteries.
AXONS: Long strings of nerve cells which carry information up and down the spinal cord.
AYURVEDIC MEDICINE: An ancient form of healing that originated in India. The basic principle is ... health is not merely the absence of disease - it is a state of balance, which involves the mind, body, spirit and environment. Good health can be obtained through lifestyle modifications and natural therapies ... disease results from stresses in the consciousness. Treatment of an existing ailment includes the following: 1. Diet, 2. yoga, 3. meditation, 4. blending of mind-body-spirit.
AZEOTROPE: Two liquids that vaporize at approximately the same rate.
AZEOTROPHY: See "azeotrope".
AZOTEMIA: Excess nitrogen in the blood ... typically results in kidney failure.
AZYGOUS: Single ... unpaired.
AZYGOUS VEIN: One of the seven veins of the chest.

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