M: Abbreviation for ... "molar".
THE JKL MEDICAL DICTIONARY
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m: Abbreviation for ... "meter".
M1: Early stage of malignant tumor spread.
MAC: Abbreviation for ... "mycobacterium avium complex". A group of germs, which belong to the same family that, includes the tuberculosis germ. Note: It is not spread by the cough of an infected person, as is tuberculosis.
MACERATION: Softening caused by a liquid.
MACRO-: A prefix (word part) meaning "large".
MACROCEPHALUS: Word used to describe an abnormally large head.
MACROCYTE: An exceedingly large red blood cell.
MACROLIDES: A class of antibiotics ... Erythromycin.
MACROMINERALS: Minerals which are found in relatively large amounts within the body ... important ones are calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and sulfur.
MACROPARASITES: Usually refers to helminths and arthropods and other parasites that do not reproduce inside their hosts but rather produce eggs and larvae that develop in the external environment.
MACROPHAGES: Immunity cells that attack invading organisms like bacteria, fungus, etcetera. Note that consumption of one teaspoon of sugar results in impairment of these cells for as much as six hours.
MACULA: A small colored area or spot located on the retina of the eye that is responsible for central and detailed vision.
MACULA LUTEA: A small, yellow area contained in the retinal of the eye and located in the vicinity of the optic nerve. Best sight is achieved when light is focussed at its center.
MACULAR DEGENERATION: Commonly seen in older people ... it is a condition where the macula degenerates and dies. Symptoms include blurry vision. The only treatments in the year 2000 are ... 1) magnifying lenses to aid in reading ... 2) consumption of the food substances lotein and zeaxanthin which help to protect the eye from ultraviolet radiation and slow down the degenerative process. Also see "dry macular degeneration" and "wet macular degeneration".
MACULE: A small colored, flat area such as a freckle.
MACULOPAPULE: A lesion with a base that slopes from the papule in the center.
MADURA FOOT: Foot disease resulting from a fungal infection.
MADUROMYCOSIS: A warm-climate fungal infection that may affect the foot, hand or other areas of the body. Pus and lesions develop and ultimately bone and tissue destruction results (if left untreated). Sometimes the infection responds to antibiotics and sulfonamides and sometimes not. If it does not respond to medications then amputation of the affected part is the only treatment.
MAGNESIUM: An essential mineral found in bones and teeth. It also aids in the ability of the body to convert food into energy.
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: Also called ... "MRI scan". An imaging test that produces images from magnetics.
MAGNUM: Another word for "capitate" (bone in the center of the wrist).
MAIDENHEAD: Another word for "hymen".
MAL-: A prefix (word part) meaning "bad" ... "pain" ... "disease".
MALA: Cheek or cheek bones.
MALABSORPTION: An inability by the digestive system to fully absorb foods.
-MALACIA: A suffix that means ... "softening".
MALABSORPTIVE DISEASE: A decreased ability to absorb food.
MALACOSTEON: Bone softening.
MALADY: Another word for "ailment".
MALAISE: A feeling of general discomfort.
MALAR: Relating to the "mala" (cheek)
MALARIA: An illness caused by a parasitic organism in the red blood cells. It is spread by the female mosquito (Anopheles) that previously came into contact with an infected person. After the parasites are transmitted into the insect's body it takes approximately two weeks for them to develop after which time anyone who is bitten by the mosquito will become infected. The symptoms of malaria develop in humans (approximately two weeks following the bite) and include fever and chills combined with headache and nausea. The cycle of fever and chills varies with the variety of the disease ... sometimes the symptoms occur every other day and sometime every third day.
MALFORMATION: A development of a body part which is abnormal (not normal).
MALIGNANT: Something that is a threat to life.
MALIGNANT FEVER: Sometimes deadly fever.
MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION: A type of high blood pressure that is acute and can cause damage to body organs, eyes, blood vessels ...
MALINGERER: A term given to a person who fakes the symptoms of a disease.
MALIS SCISSORS: Surgical instrument.
MALLEOLUS: A rounded bony structure, i.e., the bump on each side of the ankle.
MALLEUS: Also called "the hammer". It is one of the three bones of the middle ear connected to the eardrum.
MALLET FRACTURE: Fracture of index finger of distal phalanx.
MALOCCLUSION: A term commonly used in dentistry to describe an overbite, upper and lower teeth, which do not meet evenly.
MALONEY BOUGIE: A series of surgical instruments similar to a Hurst bougie, the difference being cone-shaped tips.
MALUNION: A term used to describe a broken bone that has not healed properly. To correct this situation the bone is re-broken and then "set" correctly.
MAMM / O: A combining word-form that means, "breast".
MAMMILLA: Another word for "nipple".
MAMMOGRAM: A cancer test that involves a radiographic test (x-rat) of the breast.
MAMMOGRAPHY: Examination of the breast via x-rays.
MAMMOPLASTY: Surgical reconstruction of the breast.
MANDIBLE: The lower jawbone.
MANDIBULAR: Referring to the lower jawbone.
MANUDUCTION: The act of chewing.
MANGANESE: Trace element that is essential to the functioning of the body. A typical adult has 10-20 mg (mostly found in the liver, kidneys and bones. It is essential for bone / blood formation, the proper functioning of nerves, protein metabolism, fat metabolism, glucose metabolism, production of cholesterol, initiation of RNA chains.
MANIA: Excessive excitement.
MANIC-DEPRESSIVE: A term used to describe one who alternates between depression and excitement.
MANOMETER: Measures the pressure of blood.
MANOMETRY: Measurement of gas pressure using a manometer.
MANTLE: The cortex of the brain.
MANTOUX TEST: A specialized skin test that detects tuberculosis.
MANUAL: Referring to the "hands".
MANUBRIUM: The part of the sternum that resembles a handle.
MANUS: Another word for "hand(s).
MARASMIC: Referring to marasmus (an infant's inability to thrive).
MARASMUS: A phenomenon in which an infant is unable to survive for unknown reason. Symptoms include progressive wasting away.
MARBURG DISEASE: A deadly viral disease that affects most of the organs in the body. Symptoms include a rash and profuse bleeding from many organs. The disease was originally noted in lab workers in Marburg, Germany who were exposed to African green monkeys.
MARCEL PACK: i.e., for nosebleeds.
MARCUS - GUNN: Pupillary phenomenon.
MARIE-STRUMPELL DISEASE: A type of arthritis. See "ankylosing spondylitis". A fairly common disease that primarily affects young men (can occur in either sex and at any age). Early symptoms include a stiff, lower back when waking up ... this can extend to the spine and neck with time. Symptoms can also include eye inflammation, an inflamed aorta (which can leak blood back to the heart) Swimming is an excellent exercise to preserve back mobility. Anti-inflammatory drugs (like indomethacin and naproxen) are often used to relieve pain and inflammation and keep the back as supple as possible,
MARROW: The soft and spongy material at the center of bone that is responsible for manufacturing red blood cells. Prior to adulthood the marrow is red in color (due to the manufacture of these red blood cells). However, in the mature person the marrow of many bones takes on a yellow color (due to fat) and lose the ability to produce red blood ... others continue to replenish those which wear out.
MARSH FEVER: The fever which accompanies malaria.
MARSUPIALIZATION: To create a pouch for the surgical exteriorization of a cyst.
MASOCHISM: A condition in which pleasure (sexual) is obtained from painful stimuli.
MASON-ALLEN: Type of splint.
MASSETER: A muscle in the chest that closes the jaw. One of the four muscles used in chewing.
MASSEUR: A male who practices massage.
MASSEUSE: A female who practices massage.
MAST / O: A combining word-form that means, "breast".
MASTADENITIS: Inflammation of the breast.
MASTADENOMA: A tumor of the breast.
MASTALGIA: Breast pain.
MASTAUXE: Enlargement of the breast.
MAST CELLS: Cells of the skin that contain histamine.
MASTECTOMY: Removal of a breast due to cancer.
MASTICATION: The chewing of food.
MASTITIS: Inflammation of the breast or the nipple.
MASTOCYTE: A mast cell (connective tissue cell).
MASTODYNIA: Breast pain.
MASTOID: Another word for "breast".
MASTOIDECTOMY: Destruction of mastoid cells via surgical destruction.
MASTOID PROCESS: A bulge of the temporal bone at the side of the skull. This hollow area has air cells that are often the site of infections that spread from the ear.
MAST TROUSERS: Blow up pants used for immobilization of the pelvis and other areas.
MATERNAL: Referring to the "mother".
MATERNAL IMMUNITY: Immunity for new babies that passes across the placenta to give immunity protection for approximately three to six months.
MATURATION: 1. Fully grown. 2. The stage at which a virus becomes infectious.
MAXILLA: The bone of the upper jaw.
M.B.: Abbreviation for "Bachelor of Medicine".
MCBURNEY'S INCISION: Properly spelled ... " McBurney's". Associated with appendicitis; the point is 1/3 the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus on the right.
MCBURNEY'S POINT: Properly spelled ... " McBurney's". The site on the abdomen that lies over the appendix (right lower quadrant).
MCG: Abbreviation for "microgram".
MCH: Abbreviation for ... 1. "mean corpuscular hemoglobin" ... 2. "mean cell hemoglobin". MCH is an erythrocyte (red blood cell) index.
MCHC: Abbreviation for ... 1. "mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration ... 2. "mean cell hemoglobin concentration".
mCi: Abbreviation for ... "millicurie" (a unit which measures radioactivity ... 3.7 x 107 disintegrations per second).
MCMURRAY SIGN: Properly spelled ... "McMurray". Circumduction maneuver for the knees.
MCP JOINT: Abbreviation for "Metacarpophalangeal joint".
MCU: Abbreviation for " maximal care unit".
MCV: Abbreviation for ... "mean corpuscular volume" (the average volume of erythrocytes) ... hematology. MCV is an erythrocyte (red blood cell) index.
M.D.: Abbreviation for "Doctor of Medicine".
MDI: Abbreviation of "Metered Dose Inhaler".
MEAN: Another word for "average".
MEASLES: A potentially dangerous disease ... caused by a virus. Symptoms include fever, pink rash, eye redness and bronchitis (mild). It is contagious and transferred from person-to-person on air born particles. Complications sometimes develop following the measles like bronchopneumonia, infection of the middle ear and a rare form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) that can result in permanent brain damage.
MEASLES-GERMAN: An illness which develops quickly in human beings ... caused by a virus ... symptoms are similar to a case of measles (mild) ... of short duration.
MEATUS: A passageway or opening in the body.
MECKEL'S DIVERTICULUM: Currently being researched.
MECONIUM: The 1st intestinal discharges of the newborn infant.
MEDI-: A prefix that means ... "middle".
MEDIAL: Refers to the "middle".
MEDIAL COMPARTMENT: Pertaining to the knee ... Currently being researched.
MEDIAN: Situated in the "middle". Median can also mean ... "average".
MEDIASTINUM: A part of the space in the middle of the chest ... between the sacks containing the two lungs.
MEDICAL EXAMINER: A health professional / official who is responsible for determining the cause of death in questionable situations.
MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE: Law and its relations to the medical industry.
MEDICOLEGAL: Referring to medicine and its relation to law.
MEDULLA: 1) Marrow. 2) A part of the brain stem that helps control heart rate, respiratory rate, digestion ...
MEDULLA OBLONGATA: The portion of the brain that connects to the spinal cord.
MEDULLARY SPONGIFORM DISEASE: Disease associated with kidney stone formation and blood in the urine. Kidney failure is not typical.
MEDULLITIS: Marrow inflammation.
MEGACOLON: An enlarged colon.
MEGALOBLASTIC: An abnormal increase in red blood cells.
MEGALOCORNEA: Bulging of the cornea.
MEGALOGASTRIA: Stomach enlargement.
MEGALOHEPATIA: Liver enlargement.
MEGALOMANIA: Having an abnormally high opinion of oneself.
MEGALOMELIA: Abnormally large limbs.
-MEGALY: A suffix which means ... "enlargement".
MEGAVITAMIN DOSAGE: Doses of vitamins that exceed the amount needed for regular daily maintenance of the body.
MELALGIA: Extremity pain.
MELANCHOLIA: A state of being sad.
MELANOCYTES: Skin cells that contain the pigment that gives the skin its characteristic color. Skin that contains no melanocytes appears white.
MEIBOMIAN GLANDS: Located above and below the eyelids.
MELANOMA: Cancerous cells that begin in the pigmented cells of deep layer skin. It is the most deadly form of skin cancer but can be cured if treated in its early stages. It can be identified as a patch of skin irregular in shape and larger than the eraser of a pencil. It is multi-colored (black, brown, gray). Exposure to sunlight is known to be a contributor. A bad sunburn from childhood is a dangerous indicator for future occurrences. Distinguish a melanoma from a mole by looking for ... 1) asymmetry (not symmetrically rounded), 2) irregular edges - melanoma edges are irregular while mole edges are smooth, 3) color - variety of colors like brown and black shades and even blues and reds are sometimes noted, 4) size - melanomas are typically larger than the eraser of a pencil.
MELANOPATHY: Abnormal increase of skin pigmentation.
MELANOSIS: Black pigmented deposits on the skin.
MELASMA: Dark pigmentation.
MELATONIN: Melatonin is a chemical released by the pineal gland of the brain. It follows a 24-hour rhythm with blood levels up to ten times greater at night than during the day (this is a good reason to get your required amount of sleep).
MELENA: Black vomit, or the passage of lumpy stools darkened by blood. Melena can occur from ulcers.
MELITEMIA: High blood sugar level.
MEMBRANE: Thin tissue-covering organs.
MENARCHE: Commencement of the menstrual period.
MENIERE'S DISEASE: An ailment which includes tinnitus, nausea, vomiting and vertigo caused by a fluid buildup in the inner ear disrupting a person's hearing and balance. With time a sufferer has longer and longer bouts of vertigo and hearing impairment. This disease is difficult to treat by the medical establishment.
MENINGIOMA: A benign neoplasm occurring in adults. They are tumors of the meninges that do not spread to other parts of the body. They can increase in size to cause headaches and other problems depending where they are located.
MENINGES: The three-layered covering of the brain ... dura mater, arachnoid and the pia mater. The dura mater is the tough outer layer, the arachnoid is the middle (resembles a spider's web) and the pia mater actually comes into contact with the brain and the spinal cord.
MENINGIOMA: A tumor within the meninges.
MENINGISMUS: A condition of irritation of the brain or spinal cord in which the symptoms simulate meningitis.
Menometrorrhagia: Excess menstrual and uterine bleeding that is not caused by menstruation. It may be a sign of cervical cancer.
MENINGITIS: Inflammation of the three-layered covering of the brain and spinal cord ... caused by viral, bacteria and other microscopic organisms. The onset of the disease is rapid with headache and neck pain / stiffness. The disease is diagnosed by performing a "spinal tap" which involves the removal and analysis of spinal fluid. A skin rash with red spots sometimes occurs. Antibiotics are usually effective and patients get well quickly if treatment is commenced early. Ascetic; Septic; See "meningococcal meningitis".
MENINGOCOCCAL MENINGITIS: Infection of the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include sudden onset of fever, vomiting, weakness, irritability, headache, stiff neck and sometimes body rash. It is spread by contact with mucus or saliva from infected individuals.
MENINGOCOCCUS: The organism that causes the very serious form of meningitis called "meningococcal meningitis" which can cause death in 50% of sufferers if left untreated.
MENISCAL: Referring to the crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure of the knee.
MENISCECTOMY: The surgical removal of the crescent shaped cartilage in the knee joint ... usually due to torn cartilage causing pain or an unstable/locking knee joint.
MENISCUS: A crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure of the knee ... the acromdi and sterno-clavicular and the temporomandibular joints.
MENKES' DISEASE: An inherited condition which is characterized by ... 1) a deficiency of copper in the liver ... 2) proteins that normally contain copper. The disease may result in early death, mental retardation, and brittle hair.
MENOPAUSE: When a woman experiences cessation of menstruation. It occurs at approximately the age of 51. The production of ovum ceases and the levels of estrogen decrease. Hormone replacement therapy is generally prescribed to ease symptoms. Menopausal symptoms include hot flashes.
MENORRHAGIA: Abnormal bleeding during menses.
MENORRHEA: Menses discharge.
MENSES: The normal flow of blood that occurs during menstruation.
MENSTRUATION: The 28-day cycle that females undergo which sheds the lining of the womb. Approximately 14 days prior to the menstrual flow an egg (ovum) travels to the fallopian tube and remains there for 24 hours. Then, it transfers through the tube and into the uterus where it awaits fertilization. If conception does not occur then the top layers of the uterus are expelled during menses.
MENTATION: The process of reasoning and thinking.
MENTO: Relationship to the chin.
MENTUM: Another word for "chin".
MEQ: Properly spelled ... "mEq" or "mEq". Abbreviation for ... "milliequivalent".
MERALGIA: Pain in the thigh.
MERALGIA PARESTHETICA: Thigh pain.
MESENTER: A combining word form that means, "middle intestine" (mesenteric).
MESENTERIC NODES: Lymph glands in one of three groups serving parts of the intestine.
MESENTERIC: Middle intestine. Mesenteric also refers to the skin that connects many organs to the body.
MESENTERY: A membrane which attaches organs to the body wall. Typically the term refers to a fold of membrane that connects the small intestines to the body wall.
MESO-: A prefix (word part) meaning "middle.
MESOMORPH: A body type which displays balance between limbs and trunk.
MESOTHELIOMA: Rare neoplasm made from spindle cells or fibrous tissue.
MET: Abbreviation for ... "metabolic equivalent test". One "MET" is the oxygen that is required to sit in a chair, relaxed.
META-: A prefix (word part) meaning "beyond" ... "alteration".
METABOLIC ACIDOSIS: An abnormally low blood pH (measure of the acidity / alkalinity). The condition can be due to dehydration, poison, shock to the heart, kidney failure, hemorrhagic shock, and increase in ketone bodies.
METABOLISM: The process within the body that maintains and produces life.
METABOLITE: The products of the process within the body (metabolism).
METACARPAL: One of the five bones of the hand located between the carpus and phalanges.
METACARPUS: The five bones located in the palm of the hand.
METACYSIS: Term used to mean "blood transfusion".
METAMYELOCYTE: One of the stages of growth of mature white blood cells.
METAPHYSIS: Section of bone between the diaphysis and epiphysis of large bones.
METAPLASIA: The transfer of one type of cells into another kind.
METASTASIS: The transfer of disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.
METASTATIC: Pertaining to metastasis.
METATARSAL: Pertaining to a metatarsus.
METATARSUS: A part of the foot made of 5 bones (numbered I to V from the large toe).
METATHESIS: Transfer of a pathologic product from one place to another.
METEORISM: Also called ... "tympanites". Enlargement (distention) of the abdomen due to gas.
METERED DOSE INHALERS:
METFORMIN: Antidiabetic insulin sensitizer (Glucophage).
METHIONINE: One of the essential amino acids. Source of sulfur. Associated with growth, healthy skin and nails. Assists in lowering cholesterol levels and preventing problems with hair, skin, nails. Reduces liver fat, protects the kidneys, promotes hair growth.
METHYL METHACRYLATE: Cement used in surgery.
METOPIC: Referring to the forehead.
METRA: Referring to the womb (uterus).
METRALGIA: Uterus pain.
METRITIS: Uterine inflammation.
METROCARCINOMA: Uterine cancer.
METROLOGY: The field of "measurement".
METROPATHY: A disorder of the uterus.
METRORRHAGIA: Bleeding from the vagina that is due to causes unrelated to menses.
METZENBAUM: Surgical instrument ... surgical scissors.
mg: Abbreviation for ... "milligram" (1/1000th of a gram).
Mg: Abbreviation for ... "magnesium".
MI: Myocardial infarction (heart attack).
MICRO-: A prefix (word part) meaning "small".
MICROCIRCULATION: Refers to blood flow in small vessels.
MICROCARDIA: An abnormally small heart.
MICROCYTE: Also called ... "microerythrocyte". A small red blood cell without a nucleus.
MICROCYTHEMIA: Also called ... "microcytosis". Microcytes occurring in the blood.
MICROCYTOSIS: Also called ... "microcythemia". Microcytes occurring in the blood.
MICROERYTHROCYTE: Also called ... "microcyte". A small red blood cell without a nucleus.
MICROGRAPHY: A microscopic study.
MICROGRAM: 1/1,000,000 of a gram.
MICROMINERALS: Minerals which are found in relatively small amounts within the body ... important ones are cobalt, molybdenum and selenium.
MICRON: 1/1000TH of a millimeter.
MICROPHALLUS: An abnormally small penis.
MICROVILLUS: A small protrusion or process ... tiny bumps on cell membranes.
MICTURITION: The act of urinating.
MIGRAINE HEADACHE: Severe headaches which typically involves one side. They commence with an "aura" which involves flashing lights, twinkling stars or zigzag lines. Another typical symptom is nausea. Chocolate and hunger are often factors that trigger an onset. Cafergot is one medicine that is sometimes effective. Note, abdominal stress is a typical symptom.
MILIARIA: Another word for "heat rash".
MILIUM: White head.
MILK TEETH: A child's first teeth.
MILLICURIE: Abbreviated as ... "mCi". A unit that measures radioactivity ... 3.7 x 107 disintegrations per second.
MILLIEQUIVALENT: An amount used for measuring doses of medications.
MIMS: Hospital database.
MINERALS: Inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust. Minerals play strategic roles in the regulation of many body functions ... they make up bones, teeth, muscle, blood, nerve cells and soft tissue. They are involved in the manufacture of hormones and vitamins cannot be absorbed into the body without them.
MINISTROKE: Results from blockage of small arteries that feed parts of the brain. Symptoms include weakness of a leg or arm.
MINOCYCLINE: A member of the tetracycline family of antibiotics.
MIOCARDIA: Contraction of the heart.
MIOSIS: Another word for "contraction".
MISCARRIAGE: Abortion ... the loss of a fetus. It can be the result of infant abnormality, nutritional deficiencies, glandular deficiencies, and trauma to the abdomen. The symptoms of a miscarriage include heavy bleeding combined with cramps.
MISCIBLE: Something which has the ability to be mixed and does not separate afterwards.
MITOCHONDRIA: Also called ... "Altmann's granule". Organelles that are self-reproducing found in the cytoplasm of cells ... they are the primary source of energy for cells.
MITOCHONDRION: The area within the cell which contains the mechanism which accounts of energy production.
MITOSIS: Refers to cell reproduction ... the process of cell division.
MITRAL REGURGITATION: The backward flow of blood through this heart valve.
MITRAL VALVE: It separates two chambers of the heart and acts like a saloon door to prevent blood from backing up into the atrium (heart chamber) during the pumping process. It is found between the upper left heart chamber and the lower left heart chamber.
MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE: A failure of the mitral valve of the heart to close properly. In 1999 it was estimated that approximately 5% of men and 17% of women suffered from this condition. The medical establishment has been warning that it can cause infection of heart valves, heart failure and stroke. Also, sufferers should take antibiotics prior to dental work or surgeries. Doctors often hear a "click" of the heart when performing physical examinations but were never able to localize it in the past. With the advent of ultrasound, doctors were able to pinpoint it to the mitral valve. A study by Dr. Lisa Freed at Yale New Haven Hospital indicated that people with MVP were not likely to develop stroke or heart failure any more than those who did not demonstrate this problem.
MITRAL VALVE REGURGITATION: A backwards flow into the left atrium of the heart caused by a mitral valve that leaks. Symptoms are dependent upon the magnitude of the leak. A large leak can result in fatigue and shortness of breath because there is not enough blood being pumped throughout the body to provide proper nourishment. Severe leaks can be corrected by surgical means while others can be augmented with medicines that assist the pumping of blood.
MITRAL VALVULOTOMY: A surgical procedure that widens the opening in the heart valve (mitral valve) which separates the upper and lower chambers of the heart (on the left).
MITTELSCHMERZ: Abdominal pain which happens at the time of ovulation.
MIU: Abbreviation for ... "Milia-International Unit.
ML: Abbreviation for ... "milliliter".
mm: Abbreviation for ... "millimeter".
MMR: Abbreviation for "mumps, measles / rubella vaccine.
mo: Abbreviation for ... "month".
MODUS: Another word for "method".
MODUS OPERANDI: A method for accomplishment.
MOHS: The last name of a surgeon who invented a method of removing skin tumors.
MOIETY: A portion of something.
MOLARS: The 12 flat teeth that chew foods. They are located on each side (upper and lower) and behind the canine and incisor teeth.
MOLAR PREGNANCY: Also called, "hydatidiform mole". It is a placenta in which a fetus does not develop. Instead, growths that appear similar to grapes form on the surface. A "mole" is the result of fertilizing an ovum that lacks genetic material. Symptoms include vaginal bleeding, and the passing of the grapelike material. Rarely, the mole can develop into cancer.
MOLE: A colored growth on the skin which often has hairs growing from it. Mole: To distinguish a melanoma from a mole, look for ... 1) asymmetry (not symmetrically rounded), 2) irregular edges - melanoma edges are irregular while mole edges are smooth, 3) color - variety of colors like brown and black shades and even blues and reds are sometimes noted, 4) size - melanomas are typically larger than the eraser of a pencil.
MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY: A study of the distribution and diversity of virus colonies using nucleotide sequence data.
MOLECULE: A combination of atoms which is the smallest amount that a substance can be broken down to and still retain the chemical properties of the substance.
MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM: Disease marked by soft round tumors on the skin.
mol wt: Abbreviation for ... "molecular weight".
MOLYBDENUM: An essential mineral which is related to key enzyme reactions which involve the oxidation of fats, metabolism of carbohydrates and metabolism of urine. The human body concentrates most of the molybdenum in the liver, kidney, adrenal glands, bones and skin. A deficiency has been associated with cancer of the esophagus, sexual impotency and decay of teeth.
MONARTHRITIS: Arthritis pain, which affects only one joint.
MONGOLISM: Deficient physical and mental development characterized by a flat and broad face / skull which resembles the Asian race.
MONILIA: A term used to refer to a fungus commonly known as "fruit molds".
MONILIAL: Used in reference to the genus "Candida" ... monilial vaginitis.
MONILIASIS: Infection of the vagina, mouth, throat and other body areas by a fungus ... see "monilia".
MONOCLONAL: A term used in immunochemistry referring to identical molecules.
MONOCYTE: A variety of blood cells (white). An increase in monocytes is typically observed during the phase of recovery following many infections. It is seen in brucellosis (a type of bacteria, Crohn's disease, blood neoplasms, polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, syphilis and TB, systemic lupus, ulcerative colitis.
MONOMELIC: Referring to only one limb.
MONONUCLEOSIS: Illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Also called the "kissing disease" due to the fact that the virus cane be transmitted via saliva even after the symptoms of the disease have passed. Symptoms appear 2-3 weeks after contracting the disease and include fatigue, fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes (particularly the neck) and sometimes headache. The virus can be detected with standard liver tests but seldom causes liver damage. A danger to those suffering with the disease is the rupture of an enlarged spleen that can cause death ... contact sports must be avoided. Symptoms subside in approximately 2-3 weeks.
MONOPHASIA: Inability to speak other than a single word or sentence.
MONOPLEGIA: Paralysis of a single limb or muscle group.
MONOSPOT TEST: A rapidly performed serum agglutination test for infectious mononucleosis.
MONS: An area which is elevated.
MONS PUBIS: Pubic area of the female.
MONTHLIES: Another word for "menses".
MONTREAL PEGBOARD: Surgical instrument / aid. Used to immobilize.
MORBID: A word used to describe disease or something affected by disease.
MORBIDITY: State of ill health.
MORBIDITY RATE: The percentage of healthy people in a society versus unhealthy ones.
MORBIFIC: A word used to describe something that causes disease.
MORBILLI: Another word for measles.
MORELAND OSTEOTOME: Surgical instrument / aid ... bone cutting surgical instrument.
MORIBUND: At the point of death.
MORBUS: Another word for "disease".
MORNING SICKNESS: Symptoms of vomiting and nausea which usually happens in the early stages of pregnancy.
MORON: A term used to describe someone who has a mental age between 7-12 years of age.
MORO REFLEX: Startle reflex.
MORPHOLOGY: The science dealing with plant and animal structures.
MORPHOLOGY OF BLOOD CELLS: The microscopic study of blood cells and their characteristics.
MORTISE: The seating for the talus made by the connection of the fibula and tibia at the ankle joint i.e., the seating at the ankle joint.
MORTON'S NEURALGIA: Nerve pain between the lateral and medial plantar nerves due to pressure on the nerve by the metatarsophalangeal joint.
MOTILE: Spontaneous but not conscious movement.
MOTILITY: Being ability to move.
MOTOR: Referring to movement.
MOTTLING: An area of skin comprised of macular lesions of varying shades or colors.
MOYAMOYA DISEASE: A CVA disorder mainly occurring in Japanese people. It is characterized by mental retardation, convulsion, hemiplegia and subarachnoid hemorrhage.
MRA: Abbreviation for: 1) multivariate regression analysis, 2) main renal artery, and 3) marrow repopulation activity.
MRI: Abbreviation for "magnetic resonance imaging". The technique uses magnetism combined with radio waves for the purpose of producing detailed images of internal body structures.
MRI SCAN: Also called ... "MRI scan". An imaging test that produces images from magnetics.
mRNA: Abbreviation for ... "messenger RNA".
M.S.: Abbreviation for "master of surgery".
M.T.: Abbreviation for "medical transcriptionist".
MTP: Abbreviation for "metatarsophalangeal" joint.
MUCIFEROUS: That which excretes mucous.
MUCILAGES: Adhesive, viscid and sticky substance found in plants (especially the seeds).
MUCILAGINOUS: Adhesive, viscid, sticky.
MUCIN: The primary constituent of mucous.
MUCINOUS: Referring to something that contains mucin (the primary constituent of mucous).
MUCOPUS: A mixture of pus and mucus.
MUCOSA: Tissue which produces mucus.
MUCOUS MEMBRANE: Any of 4 major kinds of thin sheets of tissue cells that line various parts of the body and communicate with the air, i.e., mouth, nose, anus, vagina.
MUCUS: The sticky, slippery material released by mucous membranes and glands.
MUGGA SCAN: Abbreviation for "multiple gated acquisition blood pool radio nuclide".
MULATTO: One whose parents were of mixed race ... white and black.
MULIEBRIA: Another word for the genitalia of the female.
MULTIGRAVIDA: A woman who is currently pregnant and has had greater than two pregnancies previously.
MULTIPARA: Having greater than two previous live births.
MULTIPLE IDIOPATHIC HEMORRHAGIC SARCOMA: Also called ... "Kaposi's sarcoma". Malignant tumor of the skin and sometimes lymph nodes. Externally it produces red-purple, small, flat areas (patches). Those with the highest risks are AIDS patients and men over the age of 60.
MULTIPLE MYELOMA: Also called "myeloma multiplex". It is a disease that is not common and appears in men more than in woman. Symptoms include anemia, weakness, infections and hemorrhage. It is a malignant cancer that originates in the bone marrow. The features of the disease are dependent upon the location of the disease.
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: A disease which attacks and interferes with the fatty covering (myelin) which protects nerve cells in the brain, spine and other areas of the body. Transmission of nerve impulse is impaired to a point of weakening a leg or arm. Even sight can be affected with blurring or blindness for a short period of time. The original set of problems usually subside only to be replaced by a new set which becomes permanent. A burning pain is often cited as a symptom but due to the fact that the illness can cause a multitude of symptoms it is not possible to list them with certainty. Testing can detect the disease ... MRI scans reveal scarring of the brain and spinal cord and a sample of spinal fluid with show the presence of a specific protein. Drug to cure the disease have not been developed in the year 2000 however the following medications have been shown to combat relapses ... cortisone, baclofen, interferon and glatiramer. Even though the cause of MS has not been determined (year 2000) it is known that genetics do play a role. Curiously, people living in the hot areas of the world (tropics) do not exhibit the disease as much as those living in temperate climates. In the early stages there appears to be a link with the Herpes-6 virus (not to be confused with the virus that causes cold sores or genital herpes).
MUMPS: An infectious disease characterized by infection of the large salivary gland (parotid) in the cheeks (in front of the ears). Having mumps is almost always a once in a lifetime occurrence because it immunizes a person. The first symptom is typically is pain below the ear(s), chills, fever, headache and loss of appetite.
MURMUR: A periodic sound (raspy quality) of short duration ... of cardiac or vascular origin.
MURPHY'S SIGN: A test for gallbladder disease. Patient is asked to inhale while the examiner's fingers are at the border of the liver at the bottom of the rib cage. If the gallbladder is inflamed it will cause pain as it descends onto the fingers.
MUSCAE VOLITANTES: A term which refers to "spots in front of the eyes".
MUSCLE: Body tissues with the specialized ability to contract and relax. Muscles are connected to bones by tendons (cords of fiber).
MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: Diseases which result in a wasting away of external muscles ... this group of diseases does not affect internal, involuntary muscles (as does polio). Usually affected are muscles bilaterally (on both sides of the body). It appears that most cases are genetic and many families have more than one person with the disease.
MUTAGENIC: That which causes alterations of genetic material.
MUTATE: When genetic material is not exactly copied by reproducing cells (or multiplying viruses).
MUTATION: A permanent change in the genetic structure.
MVP: Abbreviation for "Mitral Valve Prolapse".
MYALGIA: Muscle pains.
MYASTHENIA: Weakness of muscles.
MYASTHENIA GRAVIS: A chronic muscle weakness that is progressive and begins in the throat and face. The problem is found at the nerve-muscle connection. Mestinon is a treatment that increases Acetylcholine (a chemical produced by the body which causes muscles to contract). There are many other drugs and removal of the thymus is also an option because it drops the antibodies that block the functioning of Acetylcholine. The Myasthenia Gravis Foundation can be contacted at 1-800-541-5454.
MYATONIA: Limp muscles.
MYCOBACTERIUM: Refers to a family of bacteria that cause a variety of ailments. For example, tuberculosis in humans is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis while a similar disease in cattle is caused by mycobacterium bovis.
MYCOLOGY: The study of fungi.
MYCOPLASMA: Also called ... "Asterococcus". A biological classification of anaerobic bacteria. This germ is thought by many to be the cause of rheumatoid arthritis. They do not have true cell walls but rather a three-layered membrane. These bacteria are found in humans and animals and can cause disease.
MYCOPLASMAL PNEUMONIA: Also called ... "primary atypical pneumonia" which involves the lungs and is caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Symptoms include fever and cough.
MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE: A species that causes "mycoplasmal pneumonia" (primary atypical pneumonia).
MYCOSIS: A disease which is caused by a fungus.
MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES: Sounds like a fungal disease but is not. It receives its name due to an invasion of the skin by cancer lymphocytes. The name is derived from the skin lesions that develop in untreated cases that resemble mushrooms.
MYDRIASIS: An abnormally large pupil (eye).
MYECTOMY: A surgical procedure that removes muscle (usually from a too-muscular heart by injecting it with alcohol).
MYEL / (O)-: Combining form indicating either "bone marrow" or "spinal cord".
MYELIN: A sheath of fat that protects nerve cell cables (axons) of the body much like insulation on electrical wires ... especially the brain and spine.
MYELITIS: Inflammation of the spinal cord.
MYELOBLAST: Bone marrow cell ... immature ... granulocytic. Differential cell count is typically 2% (average).
MYELODYSPLASIA: Abnormal "spinal cord" development or "bone marrow".
MYELODYSPLASTIC: Referring to "myelodysplasia".
MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME: SYNONYM(s): Also called "MDS" … "Preleukemia" … “Refractory anemia" … "Refractory dysmyelopoietic anemia" … "Smoldering leukemia". DEFINITION: A cell multiplication disorder in which bone marrow is associated with ineffective and abnormal manufacture of bone marrow … or any of the types of blood cells derived from bone marrow. BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndrome is a group of closely related blood formation disorders. All are characterized by a cellular marrow with impaired maturation (dysmyelopoiesis) and a reduction in the number of blood cells. TREATMENT: There is no established treatment for MDS. Therapy is supportive with RBC transfusions as indicated, platelet transfusions for bleeding, and antibiotic therapy for infection.
MYELOFIBROSIS: An ailment in which bone marrow becomes fibrotic and the spleen and liver develop immature blood cells.
MYELOGENIC: Relating to bone marrow.
MYELOGRAM: Spinal x-ray.
MYELOGRAPHY: A diagnostic study (x-ray) which requires the injection of a contrast medium into the spinal column.
MYELOPATHY: Any spinal cord disease.
MYELOMA: Bone marrow cancer (rampant proliferation of plasma cells) that crowds out normal cells to inhibit the production of blood cells to cause anemia, weaken bones (leading to fractures) and vulnerability to infections. Chemotherapy is sometimes used to control the reproduction of plasma cells that destroys bone marrow and then new stem cells are instilled. More information can be obtained at the Myeloma Foundation at (800) 452-2873 in the year 2000 or (818) 487-7455.
MYELON: Another word for "spinal column".
MYELOPLEGIA: Paralysis of the spine.
MYELOPOIESIS: The making of bone marrow.
MYELOPROLIFERATIVE: Unusual proliferation of myelopoietic tissue.
MYELOSUPPRESSION: A slowing down or stopping of bone marrow activity.
MYENTERON: The intestines layer of muscle.
MY / (O): A combining word-form that means "muscle".
MYIASIA: A situation whereby fly larvae invades ears, eyes or intestines.
MYITIS: Inflammation of muscle.
MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX: Germs belonging to the same family as tuberculosis. They are not passed from person to person via coughing, as is TB. "MAC" germs are virtually all around us and do not cause problems in those with strong immunity systems ... in this case the germs can take hold and create problems in the lungs ... fever, weight loss and cough are typical symptoms. Antibiotics are usually chosen as the primary defense. Note that once the MAC germs have gained the upper hand, they are very difficult to destroy.
MYOBRADIA: Retarded muscle reactions when exposed to an electrical current.
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: Also called a "heart attack". It is caused by an interruption in blood flow to the heart, which causes death, or damage to heart muscle. The victim of a heart attack experiences a sensation that feels like a tight band around the chest. The pain often radiates to the left arm or neck. A quick diagnosis is essential because doctor's can give a clot-dissolving agent to eliminate the cause.
MYOCARDITIS: Heart muscle inflammation (typically caused bu the Coxsackie virus).
MYOCARDIUM: The muscle portion of the heart (middle layer).
MYOCLONUS: Spasm of muscle tissue.
MYOCYTE: Muscle cell.
MYOGLOBIN: A form of hemoglobin found in muscles ... it causes the red color of muscles and the muscles ability to store oxygen.
MYOKYMIA: Uncontrolled muscle contractions at rest.
MYOKYMIC: See "myokymia".
MYOLOGY: The science of muscle study.
MYOLYSIS: Dissolution of muscle tissue.
MYOMA: Muscle tumor.
MYOMECTOMY: The surgical removal of a tumor from muscle tissue.
MYOPATHY: Any disease of the muscle(s).
MYOPE: A person who has near sightedness.
MYOPIA: A visual condition in which objects seen at a distance appears blurry.
MYOPLASTY: The surgical repair of a muscle.
MYOSITIS: Inflammation of a muscle.
MYOSPASM: Spasm of a muscle.
MYOTONIA: Inability to relax a muscle.
MYOTROPES: Contraction word meaning, "myoglobin and troponin".
MYRINGITIS: A state of inflamed tympanic membranes.
MYRINGOTOMY: Paracentesis of the tympanic membrane.
MYXEDEMA: A type of "cretinism" which develops in childhood / adolescence. Retardation, goiter, dry skin and hair which is coarse are typical symptoms. This condition is due to a lack of thyroid hormone.
MYXOMA: Benign tumor that is made from connective tissues cells and organ supportive cells ... a tumor occurring in mucous tissue.
MYXORRHEA: Flowing mucus.
M: Abbreviation for ... "molar".