A | B |B1 | B2 | B3 | B5 |
B6 | B12 |B15 | B17 |
C | D | E | F | K | P |
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Copyright - JKL Company
Reprinted with permission from Health Reference


Vitamins regulate and assist biochemical processes that release energy from digested food.


Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is carried through the bloodstream attached to lipids (fats). It was the first vitamin to be officially identified.

Without vitamin-A eye diseases can occur in the form of "xerophthalmia" in which the eyes dry out and sores develop on the eyelids and cornea, which can lead to blindness. In fact, the number one cause of blindness in developing countries is lack of vitamin A ... the elderly, teenagers and alcoholics are most at risk. Also, a lack of Vitamin A can result in growth retardation, defective teeth and gums, fatigue, lower levels of active thyroid hormone, weight gain, depression, headaches, low body temperature and a compromised immunity system. Lack of vitamin A in alcoholics can result in night blindness, skin problems, cirrhosis of the liver and ease of picking up infections.

TOXICITY: Vitamin A is stored in the liver and is fat soluble so there is a possibility of toxicity when taking supplements which can be manifested by headache, chapped lips, dry skin, fatigue, emotional instability and joint and bone pain.

USES: Supplemental Vitamin A is used to treat blurred vision, cataracts, glaucoma, conjunctivitis and dry eyes in the form of eye drops. It has also been used to treat asthma, sebaceous cysts, fibrocystic breast disease and premenstrual syndrome.

SOURCES: Fish/liver oils ...egg yolks ... milk products.


B-COMPLEX: B-complex vitamins have a reputation as membrane stabilizers. They help with the functioning of nerves and are natural anti-stress vitamins. They are taken with food because on an empty stomach they often induce pain and nausea. When the B-complex is adequately absorbed into the body the urine will have a pungent odor and bright yellow color (due to the riboflavonoids).


This first B vitamin discovered ... also called "thiamin".

Because of it's relationship with carbohydrates and the manufacture of energy it is essential in virtually every cellular reaction in the body, from it's role in the nervous system (manufacture of acetylcholine), to the prevention of fatty deposits in arteries, to assisting in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Vitamin B1 is necessary for the proper functioning of the muscles, nervous system and heart. A deficiency has been known to result in a loss of appetite, insomnia, fatigue, weight loss, depression, constipation, irritability, heart problems and gastrointestinal problems.

SOURCES: Organ meats, soybeans, peas, peanuts, egg yolks, poultry, broccoli, oatmeal, asparagus, raisins, plums. The cooking process, ultraviolet light, sulfates, nitrites and live yeast can destroy much of the Vitamin B1 in food sources.

DOSAGE: The recommended daily intake is the year 2000 is 1.5 milligram for adults and 1.7 milligram for lactating females.


Also called "riboflavin". It is essential for the manufacture, growth, maintenance and repair of tissues like skin, hair, connective tissue and the immunity system. Vitamin B2 is involved in cell growth, the formation of red blood cells and antibodies. It is also required for the maintenance of nails and vision. It can relieve eye fatigue. Recent research suggests that it may also be effective at reducing migraines. Deficiencies can occur due to antibiotic use, oral contraceptives and alcohol because they impede the absorption of vitamin B2.

SYMPTOMS: Deficiency can cause depression, decreased touch sensation, anemia, loss of appetite, red / swollen lips and tongue, trembling, sluggishness, itching/burning eyes, bloodshot eyes, purple tongue.

SOURCES: Organ meats, milk, yeast, cheese, oily fish, eggs, dark green leafy vegetables as well as nuts, broccoli, currants and avocados.

DOSAGE: The recommended daily intake for adults is 1.7 milligrams per day and 2.0 milligrams for lactating females.


Also called "niacin". USES: Treatment of high cholesterol, anxiety, circulatory problems along with emotional / physical stress.

SYMPTOMS: Deficiencies can cause skin that becomes sensitive to light and afterwards becomes thick, rough and dry. Also weakness, fatigue, anorexia, indigestion, skin outbreaks. Deficiencies can be caused by alcoholism, malnourishment, cancer, protein deficiencies and females taking oral contraceptives.

SOURCES: Foods that contain this vitamin include ... beef, pork, fish, milk, cheese, whole wheat, potatoes, corn and carrots.

COOKING TIP: Note that only tiny amounts are contained in foods and therefore (to preserve it) foods should be steamed to retain as much as possible.

DOSAGE: The recommended daily intake in the year 2000 is 20 milligrams a day for adults.


Also called "pantothenic acid". It is involved in releasing energy from physiological functions. It helps in the synthesis (manufacture) of coenzyme A that is associated with the breakup of fats and carbohydrates, building membranes for cells and manufacture of some neurotransmitters required by the nervous system. Deficiencies are rare.

DOSAGE: Daily intake should probably be between four and ten milligrams per day the recommended daily intake is placed at five milligrams per day.

SOURCES: Sweet potatoes, milk, broccoli, liver, eggs, yeast, bran, peanuts, wheat germ, peas, meat, poultry, whole grains.

VOLATILITY: Many vegetables and fruits contain small quantities but food processing, canning and heat destroy B5.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: Although deficiency is rare, it has been induced experimentally to result in headache, fatigue, shrunken adrenal glands, depression, nausea, sleep problems, personality changes, abdominal cramps, muscle cramps, tingling and numbness of extremities (hands and feet), immune problems, impaired coordination, muscle cramps, dermatitis.

TOXICITY: Causes diarrhea.


Also called "pyridoxine". A family of related compounds contained in animal products (pyridoxamine and pyridoxal) and plants (pyridoxine). It assists in the breakdown and manufacture of amino acids and in the process that converts amino acids into fats or carbohydrates. Vitamin B6 helps to the support the central nervous system. It is involved in fat/carbohydrate metabolism, the removal of fluids during premenstruation, healthy skin. It can reduce hand numbness, leg cramps, muscle spasms. Deficiencies have been known to cause anemia, dermatitis, hair loss, anxiety, leg cramps, water retention, anemia.

DEFICIENCIES: Note that B-6 deficiencies are rare. Typically occur in alcoholics, older people, adolescents, and people on restricted diets. Deficiencies can be caused by tobacco smoke, radiation, pollution, stress, and oral contraceptives.

Symptoms include drowsiness, irritability, weakness, depression and loss of appetite. Can adversely affect the development of an infant nervous system and cause convulsions in young children if it occurs during pregnancy.

CAUTION: It appears to be non-toxic but has been shown to lower blood sugar levels in diabetics.

USES: Has been used to treat mood disorders, PMS, asthma, cardiovascular diseases.

SOURCES: Chicken, fish, pork, egg, milk, liver, wheat germ, kidneys, and brewer's yeast.

DOSAGE: The recommended daily intake is two milligrams per day for adults and 2.5 milligrams per day for lactating females. FORMS: Pyridoxine hydrochloride and pyridoxine phosphate.


Also called "cobalamin" because it is the only vitamin to contain cobalt (an essential mineral). It is typically found in animal products.

USES: Required to metabolize (the process within the body that maintains and produces life) nerve tissue, fats, carbohydrates, maintenance of the entire nervous system. Vitamin B12 is involved in the synthesis of DNA, the effective absorption of calcium, a healthy nervous system, the normal functioning of bone marrow cells. Also, it contributes to the transportation of and storage of folate. It is stored in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, pancreas, testes, bone marrow and blood.

DEFICIENCY: Deficiency of B12 results in "pernicious anemia". Weight loss, weakness, pale skin and psychological disturbances are typical. Typically seen in alcoholics, strict vegetarians, and older people. Deficiencies can result in spinal cord degeneration, brain damage, anxiety, neuritis, lack of balance and poor appetite.

TOXICITY: No toxic effects have been found in the year 2000.

SOURCES: Oysters, eggs, meat, milk, crabs, fish.

DOSAGE: Recommended daily allowance in the year 2000 is 10-20 mcg per day.


VITAMIN B-15: Also called ... "pangamic acid". A derivative of the amino acid glycine (pangamic acid is dimethyl glycine).

B15 is a water-soluble vitamin. Purported to be an antioxidant that promotes an increased immune system, increases cell life, combats fatigue, lower cholesterol levels in the blood and helps regulate hormones. Not readily available in the United States.

There is controversy over whether it is a vitamin or not because it does not seem to be essential in the diet and when people are deficient they do not exhibit any known symptoms. Most of the information available is from Europe and Russia. It is said to decrease pain severity and morning stiffness in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers. Also, it is purported to be beneficial in pain and discomfort for osteoarthritis sufferers.

There have been a number of false claims about the biological activity of pangamic acid, this substance has been reported to be an oxygenator of body tissues, and also as an excellent scavenger of free radicals. Unfortunately, none of these claims has held up under scientific scrutiny.

SOURCES: Good sources of vitamin B15 are whole grain cereals, brown rice, rice bran, oats, brewer's yeast, pumpkin and sesame seeds, organ meats and eggs. Research from the Soviet Union has shown that pangamic acid supplementation can reduce the buildup of lactic acid in athletes and thereby lessen muscle fatigue and increase endurance. It is used in the Soviet Union for alcoholism, drug addiction; mental problems such as those of aging and senility, brain damage, autism, schizophrenia; heart disease, high blood pressure; diabetes; skin diseases; liver disease; and chemical poisonings.

TOXICITY: There are no known toxic effects from even high amounts of pangamic acid; 50-100 mg. (and even more) taken three times daily have revealed no side effects.

SIDE EFFECTS: There are reports of initial mild nausea with use of pangamates at high levels, but this only lasts a few days.


Also called ... "laetrile" and "amygdalin". Said to be effective at controlling all forms of cancer. Laetrile is derived primarily from apricot pits and almonds. It has been proposed as an alternative to the standard treatment for cancer. B17 is purported to contain quantities of "deadly" cyanide, however, back in the 1950's, Dr. Ernst Krebs showed that B17 was not harmful to human beings by filling a large hypodermic with it and then injecting into his own arm! Dr. Krebs survived with no ill effects. Vitamin B17 was the subject of great controversy over 20 years ago when some of the world's top scientists claimed that, when consumed, it made it impossible to develop cancer and killed existing cancer in most cases. In the 1970s, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) tested Laetrile in laboratory animals and did not find significant evidence that it was effective against animal cancers.

DOSAGE: Dr. Krebs is the scientist who discovered B-17, he claims that seven or more apricot seeds per day will make it impossible to develop cancer.

SOURCES: Apricot seeds have the highest content of B-17 on earth ... they are chewable and bitter. Other foods that contain vitamin B-17 are: bitter almonds, millet, lima beans and linseeds. The source of B17 in linseed is "Linimarin" rather than the "nitriloside" found in apricot kernels, however the effect is suppose to be the same if enough is eaten. It should be noted that "linimarin" B17 exists in the crushed linseed itself, not in the extracted linseed oil. Vitamin B17 is also found in seeds such as the apple, peach, cherry, grapes, and apricot. It is found in some beans and many grasses such as wheat grass. The hard wooden pit in the middle of the apricot or peach for example, is not supposed to be thrown away. In fact, the wooden shell is actually a strong armor protecting the seed. In the tropics, large quantities of B17 are found in cassava, also known as tapioca.

PROPONENT THEORY: Cancer is a simple deficiency disease of vitamin B17. In the past, mothers crushed the seeds of apricots, apples, cherries, plums, etcetera and mixed them into home made preserves. The vitamin is said to be harmless to healthy tissue because each molecule of B17 contains one unit of cyanide, one unit of benzaldehyde and two of glucose (sugar) tightly locked together. In order for the cyanide to become dangerous the molecule must be freed, a process that can only be performed by an enzyme called beta-glucosidase (present throughout the body in very small amounts, but in very large amounts [up to100 times as high] at the locations of cancerous tumors). Therefore, the cyanide only occurs at the location of the cancer and works in conjunction with the deadly poison "benzaldehyde to eradicate the cancer cells.

VITAMIN B's (Various):

Water soluble vitamins. Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and B12 are commonly known but there are other vitamins in the B family ... biotin, choline, folic acid, inositol and PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid).

See these headings for more information.


Also called "ascorbic acid" in its pure form. Water soluble vitamin. Discovered formally in 1928 when it was shown to be the major cause in preventing and treating scurvy. It is involved in hundreds of vital processes in the human body like ... antibody production, activity of white blood cells, production of interferon, antiviral and anticancer substances, etcetera. Works as an antioxidant in maintaining healthy skin and strengthening the immune system. Vitamin C is involved in the proper maintenance of teeth, bones, collagen and capillary blood vessels. It also enhances the absorption of iron and formation of red blood cells. It promotes the development of strong connective tissue and helps in the healing process of burns and other wounds. Stress on the body increases the need for this vitamin.

SOURCES: Some sources include citrus fruits, kiwi, peppers, strawberry, papaya, black currants, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cantaloupe, etcetera.

RDA: In the year 2000 the American government's recommended daily allowance for women 60-75 milligrams per day (smokers 95-110) ... for men it is 60-90 milligrams per day (smokers 95-125).

LIMITS: Daily amounts should not exceed 2,000 milligrams because higher dosages result in diarrhea.

SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of low levels of vitamin C are scurvy, bleeding, loose teeth, joint pain, dry/scaly skin, blood vessel damage, depression, anemia, fluid retention, slow healing of wounds, susceptibility to infection, male infertility, genetic damage to sperm cells.


Fat-soluble vitamin that is necessary for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus (from the intestinal tract). Is associated with: 1) Development and growth of teeth and bones in children. 2) Regulation of heart beat. 3) Protects against muscle weakness. 4) Boosts immunity system. 5) Required for thyroid. 6) Required for blood clotting. 7) It is important in the treatment and prevention of hypocalcemia. 8) It is important in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. The vitamin D that is found in foods cannot be utilized by the body ... it must be converted by the kidneys and liver to become fully active (this is why people with kidney and liver dysfunctions are at risk for osteoporosis). Vitamin D can also be obtained by exposing the face and arms to the sun (15 minutes, three times a week) because a cholesterol compound in the skin is transformed by the sun's ultraviolet rays into a precursor of vitamin D.

SOURCES: Saltwater fish, eggs, butter, fish liver oils, dairy products, cod liver oil, milk, tuna, sweet potatoes, vegetable oils dandelion greens, alfalfa, nettle (herb), parsley and horsetail (herb).

CAUTIONS: Only take vitamin D with calcium ... toxicity can result. Severe deficiencies may result in childhood rickets, osteomalacia in adults, burning sensation in the throat and mouth, difficulty sleeping, diarrhea, weight loss and visual problems.


Fat-soluble vitamin that is carried through the bloodstream attached to lipids. A powerful antioxidant which slows the oxidation in the body due to free radicals. The Vitamin E consumed should be "alpha-tocopherol" (the only type that human blood can maintain and transfer to cells when needed).

BENEFITS: Studies have shown that vitamin E improves heart and muscle respiration, promotes blood clotting, helps to prevent cataracts, strengthens capillary walls, longevity of the skin, prevent many cancers, treating existing cancer.

DOSAGE: In the year 2000 the American government's recommended daily allowance for women 15 milligrams (or 22 International units) per day ... for men it is 15 milligrams (22 International units) per day.

LIMITS: 1,000 milligrams per day ... higher amounts have been associated with greater risks of stroke and uncontrolled bleeding.

TOPICAL USES: Benefits the skin by forestalling the effects of aging. SOURCES: Vegetable oil ... seeds ... liver ... nuts. CAUTION: Vitamin mildly thins the blood and can be a concern for those taking other blood pressure medications such as Coumadin.


Essential unsaturated fatty acids.


Fat-soluble vitamin(s) that are carried through the bloodstream attached to lipids. A group of three vitamins ... K1 (phylloquinone - made by plants), K2 (menaquinone - made by animals) and K3 (menaphthone - synthetic). Stored in the liver following absorption in the intestines. The vitamin is best known for its blood clotting association. It is a vital constituent in the manufacture of prothrombin and assists in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. It is also linked to bone health because it is a requirement in the function of calcium in the mineralization of bone. It is also required for the protein MGP found in bones, teeth and cartilage. It is also linked to the conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver ... prevention of kidney stones.

SYMPTOMS: Deficiencies can cause blood-clotting problems.


Bioflavonoids are sometimes referred to as "Vitamin P" but they are not vitamins in the strictest sense of the word. Bioflavonoids improve the absorption of Vitamin C and should be taken in conjunction with one another. Bioflavonoids like hesperetin, hesperidin, eriodictyol, quercetin, quercitrin and rutin are no manufactured by the body and must be obtained from diet. They are often used to relieve athletic injuries such as pain, bruises, and pain in the legs/back. Bioflavonoids work together with Vitamin C to maintain capillaries. Also, they enhance circulation, stimulate bile production, lower cholesterol levels, counteract cataracts, have an antibacterial effect. When taken in conjunction with vitamin C they it can reduce the effects of oral herpes.

SOURCES: Can be found in the white material beneath the peel of citrus fruits, peppers, buckwheat and black currants, apricots, cherries, grapefruit, grapes, lemons, oranges, prunes, rose hips, chervil, elderberries, hawthorn berry, horsetail.


Some vitamins can collect inside the body if taken at very high dosages. Vitamin A and D are the most likely to accumulate in body fat where the kidneys are unable to clear them.

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